Zimbabwe Population: 13,182,908

« Previous Country

 History
The UK annexed Southern Rhodesia from the [British] South Africa Company in 1923. A 1961 constitution was formulated that favored whites in power. In 1965 the government unilaterally declared its independence, but the UK did not recognize the act and demanded more complete voting rights for the black African majority in the country (then called Rhodesia). UN sanctions and a guerrilla uprising finally led to free elections in 1979 and independence (as Zimbabwe) in 1980. Robert MUGABE, the nation's first prime minister, has been the country's only ruler (as president since 1987) and has dominated the country's political system since independence. His chaotic land redistribution campaign, which began in 2000, caused an exodus of white farmers, crippled the economy, and ushered in widespread shortages of basic commodities. Ignoring international condemnation, MUGABE rigged the 2002 presidential election to ensure his reelection. In April 2005, the capital city of Harare embarked on Operation Restore Order, ostensibly an urban rationalization program, which resulted in the destruction of the homes or businesses of 700,000 mostly poor supporters of the opposition. President MUGABE in June 2007 instituted price controls on all basic commodities causing panic buying and leaving store shelves empty for months. General elections held in March 2008 contained irregularities but still amounted to a censure of the ZANU-PF-led government with the opposition winning a majority of seats in parliament. MDC opposition leader Morgan TSVANGIRAI won the most votes in the presidential polls, but not enough to win outright. In the lead up to a run-off election in late June 2008, considerable violence enacted against opposition party members led to the withdrawal of TSVANGIRAI from the ballot. Extensive evidence of violence and intimidation resulted in international condemnation of the process. Difficult negotiations over a power-sharing government, in which MUGABE remained president and TSVANGIRAI became prime minister, were finally settled in February 2009, although the leaders failed to agree upon many key outstanding governmental issues. MUGABE was reelected president in June 2013 in balloting that was severely flawed and internationally condemned.

 Geography
Landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zambia; in full flood (February-April) the massive Victoria Falls on the river forms the world's largest curtain of falling water; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
Location: Southern Africa, between South Africa and Zambia
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 30 00 E
Area: total: 390,757 sq km
land: 386,847 sq km
water: 3,910 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 3,066 km
border countries: Botswana 813 km, Mozambique 1,231 km, South Africa 225 km, Zambia 797 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; moderated by altitude; rainy season (November to March)
Terrain: mostly high plateau with higher central plateau (high veld); mountains in east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: junction of the Runde and Save Rivers 162 m
highest point: Inyangani 2,592 m
Natural resources: coal, chromium ore, asbestos, gold, nickel, copper, iron ore, vanadium, lithium, tin, platinum group metals
Land use: arable land: 10.49%
permanent crops: 0.31%
other: 89.2% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,735 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts; floods and severe storms are rare
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; land degradation; air and water pollution; the black rhinoceros herd - once the largest concentration of the species in the world - has been significantly reduced by poaching; poor mining practices have led to toxic waste and heavy metal pollution
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
^Back to Top
 People
Nationality: noun: Zimbabwean(s)
adjective: Zimbabwean
Ethnic groups: African 98% (Shona 82%, Ndebele 14%, other 2%), mixed and Asian 1%, white less than 1%
Languages: English (official), Shona, Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele, sometimes called Ndebele), numerous but minor tribal dialects
Religions: syncretic (part Christian, part indigenous beliefs) 50%, Christian 25%, indigenous beliefs 24%, Muslim and other 1%
Population: 13,182,908 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 39.4% (male 2,623,606/female 2,570,028)
15-24 years: 22.5% (male 1,472,186/female 1,493,816)
25-54 years: 30.8% (male 2,039,943/female 2,018,589)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 176,951/female 311,113)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 193,147/female 283,529) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 76.4 %
youth dependency ratio: 69.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.8 %
potential support ratio: 14.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 19.5 years
male: 19 years
female: 20 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 4.38% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 32.41 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 11.4 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 22.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population note: there is an increasing flow of Zimbabweans into South Africa and Botswana in search of better economic opportunities (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 38.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: HARARE (capital) 1.606 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.57 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.7 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.5 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 570 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 27.25 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 29.63 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 24.79 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.86 years
male: 53.79 years
female: 53.93 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.58 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 58.5% (2010/11)
Physicians density: 0.16 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density: 1.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 69% of population
total: 80% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 31% of population
total: 20% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 52% of population
rural: 32% of population
total: 40% of population

unimproved:
urban: 48% of population
rural: 68% of population
total: 60% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 14.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.2 million (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 83,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 10.1% (2011)
Education expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 83.6%
male: 87.8%
female: 80.1% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2003)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.6%
male: 7.6%
female: 7.6% (2004)
^Back to Top
 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Zimbabwe
conventional short form: Zimbabwe
former: Southern Rhodesia, Rhodesia
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Harare
geographic coordinates: 17 49 S, 31 02 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 8 provinces and 2 cities* with provincial status; Bulawayo*, Harare*, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, Matabeleland North, Matabeleland South, Midlands
Independence: 18 April 1980 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 18 April (1980)
Constitution: 21 December 1979
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, Roman-Dutch civil law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987); Vice President Joice MUJURU (since 6 December 2004) and Vice President John Landa NKOMO (since December 2009)

head of government: Executive President Robert Gabriel MUGABE (since 31 December 1987) note - according to the new constitution, following the 31 July 2013 presidential elections the position of Prime Minister was abolished

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; responsible to the House of Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: presidential candidates nominated with a nomination paper signed by at least 10 registered voters (at least one from each province) and elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); elections last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018); co-vice presidents drawn from party leadership

election results: Robert Gabriel MUGABE reelected president; percent of vote - Robert Gabriel MUGABE 61.1%, Morgan TSVANGIRAI 34.4%, Welshman NCUBE 2.7% other 1.8%; note - the election process was considered flawed and roundly criticised by election monitors and international bodies
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of a Senate (93 seats - 60 members elected by popular vote for a five-year term, 10 provincial governors nominated by the president, 16 traditional chiefs elected by the Council of Chiefs, 2 seats held by the president and deputy president of the Council of Chiefs, and 5 members appointed by the president) and a House of Assembly (210 seats - members elected by popular vote for five-year terms)

elections: last held on 31 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 37 MDC 23; House of Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ZANU-PF 160, MDC 49, other 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 4 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president upon recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission, an independent body consisting of the chief justice, Public Service Commission chairman, attorney general, and 2-3 members appointed by the president; judges normally serve until age 65, but can elect to serve until age 70

subordinate courts: High Court, regional magistrate courts, and special courts
Political parties and leaders: African National Party or ANP [Egypt DZINEMUNHENZVA] Movement for Democratic Change - Tsvangirai or MDC-T [Morgan TSVANGIRAI] Movement for Democratic Change - Ncube or MDC-N [Welshman NCUBE] Peace Action is Freedom for All or PAFA United Parties [Abel MUZOREWA] United People's Party or UPP [Daniel SHUMBA] Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga or ZANU-Ndonga [Wilson KUMBULA] Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front or ZANU-PF [Robert Gabriel MUGABE] Zimbabwe African Peoples Union or ZAPU [Dumiso DABENGWA] Zimbabwe Youth in Alliance or ZIYA
Political pressure groups and leaders: Crisis in Zimbabwe Coalition National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore MADHUKU] Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenny WILLIAMS] Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-15, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Zimbabwe bird symbol; African fish eagle
National anthem: name: "Kalibusiswe Ilizwe leZimbabwe" [Northern Ndebele language] "Simudzai Mureza WeZimbabwe" [Shona] (Blessed Be the Land of Zimbabwe)
lyrics/music: Solomon MUTSWAIRO/Fred Lecture CHANGUNDEGA

note: adopted 1994
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Machivenyika MAPURANGA
chancery: 1608 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 332-7100
FAX: [1] (202) 483-9326
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David Bruce WHARTON
embassy: 172 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, Harare
mailing address: P. O. Box 3340, Harare
telephone: [263] (4) 250-593 through 250-594
FAX: [263] (4) 796-488, or 722-618
^Back to Top
 Economy
Zimbabwe's economy is growing despite continuing political uncertainty. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, Zimbabwe's economy recorded real growth of more than 9% per year in 2010-11, before slowing to 5% in 2012, due in part to a poor harvest and low diamond revenues. However, the government of Zimbabwe still faces a number of difficult economic problems, including infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, ongoing indigenization pressure, policy uncertainty, a large external debt burden, and insufficient formal employment. Zimbabwe''s 1998-2002 involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo drained hundreds of millions of dollars from the economy. The government''s subsequent land reform program, characterized by chaos and violence, badly damaged the commercial farming sector, the traditional source of exports and foreign exchange and the provider of 400,000 jobs, turning Zimbabwe into a net importer of food products. Until early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe routinely printed money to fund the budget deficit, causing hyperinflation. Dollarization in early 2009 - which allowed currencies such as the Botswana pula, the South Africa rand, and the US dollar to be used locally - ended hyperinflation and reduced inflation to about 10%, but exposed structural weaknesses that continue to inhibit broad-based growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $7.366 billion (2012 est.) $7.054 billion (2011 est.) $6.38 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $9.802 billion note: in 2009, the Zimbabwean dollar was taken out of circulation, making Zimbabwe's GDP at the official exchange rate a highly inaccurate statistic (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.4% (2012 est.) 10.6% (2011 est.) 9.6% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $600 (2012 est.) $500 (2011 est.) $500 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 68%
government consumption: 29.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21.9%
exports of goods and services: 67.9%
imports of goods and services: -87.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 68%
government consumption: 29.4%
investment in fixed capital: 21.9%
exports of goods and services: 67.9%
imports of goods and services: -87.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: corn, cotton, tobacco, wheat, coffee, sugarcane, peanuts; sheep, goats, pigs
Industries: mining (coal, gold, platinum, copper, nickel, tin, diamonds, clay, numerous metallic and nonmetallic ores), steel; wood products, cement, chemicals, fertilizer, clothing and footwear, foodstuffs, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 4.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 3.931 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 66%
industry: 10%
services: 24% (1996)
Unemployment rate: 95% (2009 est.) 80% (2005 est.) note: figures reflect underemployment; true unemployment is unknown and, under current economic conditions, unknowable
Population below poverty line: 68% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 40.4% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 50.1 (2006) 50.1 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA
Taxes and other revenues: NA% of GDP
Public debt: 187.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 180.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.2% (2012 est.) 5.4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$521.9 million (2012 est.) -$621.5 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $3.314 billion (2012 est.) $2.932 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: platinum, cotton, tobacco, gold, ferroalloys, textiles/clothing
Exports - partners: China 20.4%, South Africa 14.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 12.9%, Botswana 11.5%, Italy 4.4% (2012)
Imports: $4.569 billion (2012 est.) $4.272 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, other manufactures, chemicals, fuels, food products
Imports - partners: South Africa 51.2%, China 9.7% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $575.6 million (31 December 2012 est.) $660.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $8.767 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $6.276 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $10.9 billion (31 December 2011) $11.48 billion (31 December 2010) $3.83 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Zimbabwean dollars (ZWD) per US dollar - 234.25 (2010) 234.25 (2009) 9,686.8 (2007) note: the dollar was adopted as a legal currency in 2009; since then the Zimbabwean dollar has experienced hyperinflation and is essentially worthless
^Back to Top
 Energy
Electricity - production: 7.615 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 100
Electricity - consumption: 12.54 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 53 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 5.497 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.005 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 66.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 33.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 19,030 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 13,140 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 8.493 million Mt (2010 est.)
^Back to Top
 Communications
Telephones in use: 356,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 109
Cellular Phones in use: 9.2 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: system was once one of the best in Africa, but now suffers from poor maintenance

domestic: consists of microwave radio relay links, open-wire lines, radiotelephone communication stations, fixed wireless local loop installations, and a substantial mobile-cellular network; Internet connection is available in Harare and planned for all major towns and for some of the smaller ones

international: country code - 263; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat; 2 international digital gateway exchanges (in Harare and Gweru) (2010)
Broadcast media: government owns all local radio and TV stations; foreign shortwave broadcasts and satellite TV are available to those who can afford antennas and receivers; in rural areas, access to TV broadcasts is extremely limited (2007)
Internet country code: .zw
Internet hosts: 30,615 (2012)
Internet users: 1.423 million (2009)
^Back to Top
 Transportation
Airports: 196 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 29
Airports (paved runways): total 17
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 7 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 179

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 104
under 914 m: 72 (2013)
Pipelines: refined products 270 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,427 km

narrow gauge: 3,427 km 1.067-m gauge (313 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total 97,267 km
paved: 18,481 km
unpaved: 78,786 km (2002)
Waterways: (some navigation possible on Lake Kariba) (2011)
Ports and terminals: Binga, Kariba
^Back to Top
 Military
Military branches: Zimbabwe Defense Forces (ZDF): Zimbabwe National Army (ZNA), Air Force of Zimbabwe (AFZ) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women are eligible to serve (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,616,051
females age 16-49: 2,868,376 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,528,166
females age 16-49: 1,646,041 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 154,870
female: 152,550 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2006)
^Back to Top
 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Namibia has supported, and in 2004 Zimbabwe dropped objections to, plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river; South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: undetermined (political violence, human rights violations, land reform, and economic collapse) (2012)
Illicit drugs: transit point for cannabis and South Asian heroin, mandrax, and methamphetamines en route to South Africa
^Back to Top


« Previous Country




   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

 

Flag Counter