Norway Population: 5,265,158

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 History
Two centuries of Viking raids into Europe tapered off following the adoption of Christianity by King Olav TRYGGVASON in 994; conversion of the Norwegian kingdom occurred over the next several decades. In 1397, Norway was absorbed into a union with Denmark that lasted more than four centuries. In 1814, Norwegians resisted the cession of their country to Sweden and adopted a new constitution. Sweden then invaded Norway but agreed to let Norway keep its constitution in return for accepting the union under a Swedish king. Rising nationalism throughout the 19th century led to a 1905 referendum granting Norway independence. Although Norway remained neutral in World War I, it suffered heavy losses to its shipping. Norway proclaimed its neutrality at the outset of World War II, but was nonetheless occupied for five years by Nazi Germany (1940-45). In 1949, Norway abandoned neutrality and became a member of NATO. Discovery of oil and gas in adjacent waters in the late 1960s boosted Norway's economic fortunes. In referenda held in 1972 and 1994, Norway rejected joining the EU. Key domestic issues include immigration and integration of ethnic minorities, maintaining the country's extensive social safety net with an aging population, and preserving economic competitiveness.

 Geography
About two-thirds mountains; some 50,000 islands off its much-indented coastline; strategic location adjacent to sea lanes and air routes in North Atlantic; one of the most rugged and longest coastlines in the world
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Sweden
Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 10 00 E
Area: total: 323,802 sq km
land: 304,282 sq km
water: 19,520 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than New Mexico
Land Boundaries: total: 2,566 km border countries (3): Finland 709 km, Sweden 1,666 km, Russia 191 km
Coastline: 25,148 km (includes mainland 2,650 km, as well as long fjords, numerous small islands, and minor indentations 22,498 km; length of island coastlines 58,133 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 10 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: temperate along coast, modified by North Atlantic Current; colder interior with increased precipitation and colder summers; rainy year-round on west coast
Terrain: glaciated; mostly high plateaus and rugged mountains broken by fertile valleys; small, scattered plains; coastline deeply indented by fjords; arctic tundra in north
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, titanium, pyrites, nickel, fish, timber, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 2.7% arable land 2.2%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.5% forest: 27.8%
other: 69.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: rockslides, avalanches volcanism: Beerenberg (elev. 2,227 m) on Jan Mayen Island in the Norwegian Sea is the country's only active volcano
Current Environment Issues: water pollution; acid rain damaging forests and adversely affecting lakes, threatening fish stocks; air pollution from vehicle emissions
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Norwegian(s)
adjective: Norwegian
Ethnic groups: Norwegian 94.4% (includes Sami, about 60,000), other European 3.6%, other 2% (2007 est.)
Languages: Bokmal Norwegian (official), Nynorsk Norwegian (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities note: Sami is an official language in nine municipalities
Religions: Church of Norway (Evangelical Lutheran - official) 82.1%, other Christian 3.9%, Muslim 2.3%, Roman Catholic 1.8%, other 2.4%, unspecified 7.5% (2011 est.)
Population: 5,265,158 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.02% (male 486,408/female 462,178)
15-24 years: 12.8% (male 345,785/female 327,969)
25-54 years: 40.98% (male 1,112,006/female 1,045,791)
55-64 years: 11.7% (male 311,528/female 304,267)
65 years and over: 16.51% (male 398,203/female 471,023) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.2%
youth dependency ratio: 27.3%
elderly dependency ratio: 24.9%
potential support ratio: 4% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 39.1 years
male: 38.4 years
female: 40 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.07% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 12.2 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 6.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 80.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.35% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: OSLO (capital) 986,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 28.5 note: data is calculated based on actual age at first births (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 5 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 2.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.8 years male: 79.8 years
female: 83.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.86 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 88.4% note: percent of women aged 20-44 (2005)
Health expenditures: 9.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 4.28 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 3.3 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 98.3% of population
total: 98.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 1.7% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.15% (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 5,800 (2014 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: less than 100 (2014 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 24.8% (2014)
Education expenditures: 7.4% of GDP (2013)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 18 years male: 17 years
female: 18 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 7.9% male: 9.1%
female: 6.6% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Norway
conventional short form: Norway
local long form: Kongeriket Norge
local short form: Norge
etymology: derives from the Old Norse words "nordr" and "vegr" meaning "northern way" and refers to the long coastline of western Norway
Government type: parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Oslo
geographic coordinates: 59 55 N, 10 45 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 19 counties (fylker, singular - fylke); Akershus, Aust-Agder, Buskerud, Finnmark, Hedmark, Hordaland, More og Romsdal, Nordland, Nord-Trondelag, Oppland, Oslo, Ostfold, Rogaland, Sogn og Fjordane, Sor-Trondelag, Telemark, Troms, Vest-Agder, Vestfold
Dependent areas: Bouvet Island, Jan Mayen, Svalbard
Independence: 7 June 1905 (Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved); 26 October 1905 (Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union)
National holiday: Constitution Day, 17 May (1814)
Constitution: history: drafted spring 1814, adopted 16 May 1814, signed by Constituent Assembly 17 May 1814 amendments: proposals submitted by members of Parliament or by the government within the first three years of Parliament's four-year term; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of a two-thirds quorum in the next elected Parliament; amended over 400 times, last in 2015
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law; Supreme Court can advise on legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King HARALD V (since 17 January 1991); Heir Apparent Crown Prince HAAKON MAGNUS, son of the monarch (born 20 July 1973)

head of government: Prime Minister Erna SOLBERG (since 16 October 2013)

cabinet: State Council appointed by the monarch, approved by Parliament elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following parliamentary elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the monarch with the approval of the parliament
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Storting (169 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 September 2013 (next to be held in September 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - Center-Right Coalition 54.0% (H 26.3%, FrP 16.3%, KrF 5.6%, V 5.2%), Red-Green Coalition 40.6% (Ap 30.8%, SP 5.5%, SV 4.1%), MDG 2.8, other 2.7%; seats by party - Center-Right Coalition 96 (H 48, FrP 29, KrF 10, V 9), Red-Green Coalition 72 (Ap 55, Sp 10, SV 7), MDG 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Hoyesterett (consists of the chief justice and 18 associate justices) judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the monarch (King in Council) upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Board; justice retirement mandatory at age 70

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal or Lagmensrett; regional and district courts; Conciliation Boards; ordinary and special courts; note - in addition to professionally trained judges, elected lay judges sit on the bench with professional judges in the Courts of Appeal and district courts
Political parties and leaders: Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM] Center-Right Coalition (includes FrP, H, KrF, V) Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE] Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG] Green Party or MDG [Rasmus HANSSON and Hilde OPOKU] Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STORE] Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI GRANDE] Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN] Red-Green Coalition (includes Ap, Sp, SV) Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (Naeringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) or NHO [President Tore ULSTEIN; CEO Kristin SKOGEN LUND] Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions (Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) or LO [Gerd KRISTIANSEN] other: environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EFTA, EITI (implementing country), ESA, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): lion; national colors: red, white, blue
National anthem: name: "Ja, vi elsker dette landet" (Yes, We Love This Country)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Bjornstjerne BJORNSON/Rikard NORDRAAK

note: adopted 1864; in addition to the national anthem, "Kongesangen" (Song of the King), which uses the tune of "God Save the Queen," serves as the royal anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kare Reidar AAS (since 22 August 2013)
chancery: 2720 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 459-3990
consulate(s) general: Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel HEINS (since 10 March 2016)
embassy: Henrik Ibsens gate 48, 0244 Oslo; note - the embassy will move to Huseby in the near future
mailing address: PSC 69, Box 1000, APO AE 09707
telephone: [47] 21-30-85-40
FAX: [47] 22-44-33-63, 22-56-27-51
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 Economy
Norway's has a stable economy with a vibrant private sector, a large state sector, and an extensive social safety net. Norway opted out of the EU during a referendum in November 1994; nonetheless, as a member of the European Economic Area, it contributes sizably to the EU budget. The country is richly endowed with natural resources in addition to oil and gas, including hydropower, fish, forests, and minerals. The government manages the country’s petroleum resources through extensive regulation. The petroleum sector provides about 9% of jobs, 15% of GDP, and 39% of exports, according to official national estimates. Norway is one of the world's leading petroleum exporters, though oil production in 2015 was close to 50% below its peak in 2000; annual gas production, conversely, more than doubled over the same time period. In anticipation of eventual declines in oil and gas production, Norway saves state revenue from petroleum sector activities in the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, valued at over $800 billion as of early 2016. The government allows itself to use up to 4% of the fund’s value, its annual expected real rate of return, to help balance the federal budget each year. After solid GDP growth in 2004-07, the economy slowed in 2008, and contracted in 2009, before returning to modest, positive growth from 2010 to 2015. Lower oil prices in 2015 caused growth to slow, increased unemployment, and weakened the Norwegian krone. The latter trend has mitigated the negative impact of lower oil and gas prices by making Norwegian exports cheaper for foreign buyers. The government has expressed willingness to increase public spending from the sovereign wealth fund to help prevent a recession.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $364.7 billion (2016 est.) $361.7 billion (2015 est.) $356 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $376.3 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.8% (2016 est.) 1.6% (2015 est.) 2.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $69,300 (2016 est.) $69,500 (2015 est.) $69,100 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 35.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 37.6% of GDP (2015 est.) 40.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 44%
government consumption: 24.3%
investment in fixed capital: 23.3%
investment in inventories: 5.4%
exports of goods and services: 36.1%
imports of goods and services: -33.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 44%
government consumption: 24.3%
investment in fixed capital: 23.3%
investment in inventories: 5.4%
exports of goods and services: 36.1%
imports of goods and services: -33.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, potatoes; pork, beef, veal, milk; fish
Industries: petroleum and gas, shipping, fishing, aquaculture, food processing, shipbuilding, pulp and paper products, metals, chemicals, timber, mining, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: -0.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 2.794 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 2.7%
industry: 18.3%
services: 79% (2015 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.8% (2016 est.) 4.4% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.8%
highest 10%: 21.2% (2014)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 26.8 (2010) 25.8 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $199.8 billion
expenditures: $188.8 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 53.1% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 32.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 31.8% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data exclude treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as i
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.5% (2016 est.) 2.2% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $26.23 billion (2016 est.) $35.04 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $92.4 billion (2016 est.) $102.9 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, machinery and equipment, metals, chemicals, ships, fish
Exports - partners: UK 22.2%, Germany 17.9%, Netherlands 10.2%, France 6.6%, Sweden 6.1%, Belgium 5%, US 4.5% (2015)
Imports: $73.02 billion (2016 est.) $75.79 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Sweden 12%, Germany 11.8%, China 10.9%, UK 6.7%, US 6.6%, Denmark 6% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $57.46 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $64.8 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $642.3 billion (31 March 2016 est.) $640.1 billion (31 March 2015 est.) note: Norway is a net external creditor
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $206.2 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $201.1 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $195.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $192.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $193.9 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $219.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $265.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Norwegian kroner (NOK) per US dollar - 8.615 (2016 est.) 8.0646 (2015 est.) 8.0646 (2014 est.) 6.3021 (2013 est.) 5.82 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 142 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 126.4 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 21.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 6.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 33.7 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 4.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 92.7% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2.5% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 1.61 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 1.255 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 22,400 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 5.1 billion bbl (1 January 2010 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 352,700 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 218,200 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 403,100 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 98,760 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 108.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 5.87 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 114.4 billion cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.922 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 41 million Mt (2012 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 5.841 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 112 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern in all respects; one of the most advanced telecommunications networks in Europe

domestic: Norway has a domestic satellite system; the prevalence of rural areas encourages the wide use of mobile-cellular systems

international: country code - 47; 2 buried coaxial cable systems; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - NA Eutelsat, NA Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Norway (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned public radio-TV broadcaster operates 3 nationwide TV stations, 3 nationwide radio stations, and 16 regional radio stations; roughly a dozen privately owned television stations broadcast nationally and roughly another 25 local TV stations broad (2008)
Internet country code: .no
Internet users: total: 5.042 million percent of population: 96.8% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 95 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 67

2,438 to 3,047 m: 14
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 28

914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 22 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 578 km; condensate/gas 220 km; gas 8,044 km; oil 3,794 km; oil/gas/water 457 km; water 96 km (2013)
Railways: total 4,250 km
standard gauge: 4,250 km 1.435-m gauge (2,518 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 93,870 km
(includes 393 km of expressways) paved: 75,754 km
unpaved: 18,116 km (2013)
Waterways: 1,577 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 585

by type: bulk carrier 55, cargo 105, carrier 5, chemical tanker 121, combination ore/oil 12, liquefied gas 47, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 121, petroleum tanker 54, refrigerated cargo 9, roll on/roll off 4, vehicle carrier 49

foreign-owned: 81 (Bermuda 24, Canada 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 7, France 5, Iceland 2, Lithuania 1, Saudi Arabia 3, Sweden 27, US 10)

registered in other countries: 974 (Antigua and Barbuda 9, Bahamas 186, Barbados 38, Belize 2, Bermuda 5, Brazil 3, Canada 4, Chile 1, Comoros 1, Cook Islands 8, Croatia 2, Curacao 2, Cyprus 14, Denmark 2, Dominica 1, Equatorial Guinea 1, Estonia 2, Faroe Islands 13, Gibraltar 46, Hong Kon (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bergen, Haugesund, Maaloy, Mongstad, Narvik, Sture LNG terminal(s) (export): Kamoy, Kollsnes, Melkoya Island LNG terminal(s) (import): Fredrikstad, Mosjoen
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 Military
Military branches: Norwegian Army (Haeren), Royal Norwegian Navy (Kongelige Norske Sjoeforsvaret, RNoN; includes Coastal Rangers and Coast Guard (Kystvakt)), Royal Norwegian Air Force (Kongelige Norske Luftforsvaret, RNoAF), Home Guard (Heimevernet, HV) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 19-35 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 years of age in wartime; 17 years of age for male volunteers; 18 years of age for women; 1-year service obligation followed by 4-5 refresher training periods through ages 35-60, totaling 18 months (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.59% of GDP (2015) 1.58% of GDP (2014) 1.4% of GDP (2013) 1.4% of GDP (2012) 1.47% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Norway asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Queen Maud Land and its continental shelf); Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission; Norway and Russia signed a comprehensive maritime boundary agreement in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 13,490 (Eritrea); 8,600 (Somalia); 5,684 (Afghanistan) (2015)
stateless persons: 2,561 (2015)
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