Norfolk Island Population: 2,210

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 History
Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions.

 Geography
Most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea in one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated
Location: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia
Geographic coordinates: 29 02 S, 167 57 E
Area: total: 36 sq km
land: 36 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 32 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: volcanic island with mostly rolling plains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish
Land use: agricultural land: 25% arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 25% forest: 11.5%
other: 63.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: typhoons (especially May to July)
Current Environment Issues: NA
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 People
Nationality: noun: Norfolk Islander(s)
adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)
Ethnic groups: Australian 79.5%, New Zealander 13.3%, Fijian 2.5%, Filipino 1.1%, English 1%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.8% (2011 est.)
Languages: English (official) 67.6%, other 32.4% (includes Norfolk Island 23.7%, which is a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian) (2011 est.)
Religions: Protestant 49.6% (Anglican 31.8%, Uniting Church in Australia 10.6%, Seventh Day Adventist 3.2%), Roman Catholic 11.7%, other 8.6%, none 23.5%, unspecified 6.6% (2011 est.)
Population: 2,210 (July 2014 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.01% (2014 est.)
Sex ratio: NA
Infant mortality rate: total: NA male: NA
female: NA
Life expectancy at birth: total population: NA male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island
conventional short form: Norfolk Island
etymology: named by British explorer Captain James COOK after Mary HOWARD, Duchess of Norfolk, in 1774
Government type: parliamentary democracy (formerly the Legislative Assembly); overseas territory of Australia; note - in May 2015, the Australian Parliament passed the Norfolk Island Legislation Amendment Bill 2015 which abolished Norfolk Island self-government and replaced it with an interim Advisory Council effective 1 July 2015
Capital: name: Kingston
geographic coordinates: 29 03 S, 167 58 E
time difference: UTC+11 (16 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (territory of Australia)
Independence: none (territory of Australia)
National holiday: Bounty Day (commemorates the arrival of Pitcairn Islanders), 8 June (1856)
Constitution: previous 1913, 1957; latest effective 7 August 1979; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: English common law and the laws of Australia
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by the Australian governor general

head of government: Administrator Gary HARDGRAVE (since 1 July 2014)

cabinet: Executive Council consists of 4 Legislative Assembly members elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a 2-year term and represents the monarch and Australia
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Norfolk Island Regional Council (5 seats; members directly elected by simple majority vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: elections last held 28 May 2016; next to be held 2020

election results: party by seats - independents 5 note: following an administrative restructuring of local government, the Legislative Assembly was dissolved on 18 June 2015 to be replaced by an interim Norfolk Island Advisory Council effective 1 July 2015; the Advisory Council consisted of 5 members appointed by the Norfolk Island administrator based on nominations from the community; following elections on 28 May 2016, the new Norfolk Island Regional Council commenced operations on 1 July 2016
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Norfolk Island (consists of the chief justice and several justices); note - appeals beyond the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island are heard by the Federal Court and the High Court of Australia judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor general of Australia from among justices of the Federal Court of Australia; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Petty Court of Sessions; specialized courts including a Coroner's Court and the Employment Tribunal
Political parties and leaders: Norfolk Island Labor Party [Mike KELLY] Norfolk Liberals [John BROWN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: UPU
National symbol(s): Norfolk Island pine
National anthem: name: "Come Ye Blessed"
lyrics/music: New Testament/John Prindle SCOTT

note: the local anthem, whose lyrics consist of the words from Matthew 25:34-36, 40, is also known as "The Pitcairn Anthem;" as a territory of Australia, "God Save the Queen" is official (see Australia); however, the island does not recognize "Advance Australia Fair"
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (territory of Australia)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (territory of Australia)
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 Economy
Norfolk Island is suffering from a severe economic downturn. Tourism, the primary economic activity, is the main driver of economic growth. The agricultural sector has become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs. Norfolk Island is suffering from a severe economic downturn. Tourism, the primary economic activity, is the main driver of economic growth. The agricultural sector has become self-sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $NA GDP (purchasing power parity): $NA
Agriculture - products: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry
Industries: tourism, light industry, ready mixed concrete tourism, light industry, ready mixed concrete
Labor force: 978 (2006) 978 (2006)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 6%
industry: 14%
services: 80% (2006 est.) agriculture: 6% industry: 14% services: 80% (2006 est.)
Budget: revenues: $4.6 million
expenditures: $4.8 million (FY99/00) revenues: $4.6 million expenditures: $4.8 million (FY99/00)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June 1 July - 30 June
Exports: $NA $NA
Exports - commodities: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
Imports: $NA $NA
Imports - commodities: NA NA
Debt - external: $NA $NA
Exchange rates: Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.352 (2016 est.) 1.3291 (2015 est.) 1.3291 (2013) 1.0358 (2013) 0.97 (2012) Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 1.352 (2016 est.) 1.3291 (2015 est.) 1.3291 (2013) 1.0358 (2013) 0.97 (2012)
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 Energy
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 Communications
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate

domestic: free local calls

international: country code - 672; submarine cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station - 1
Broadcast media: 1 local radio station; broadcasts of several Australian radio and TV stations available via satellite (2009)
Internet country code: .nf
Internet users: total: 765 percent of population: 34.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 80 km
paved: 53 km
unpaved: 27 km (2008)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Kingston
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of Australia
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook

 

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