Mozambique Population: 25,930,150

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 History
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development until the mid-1990s. The ruling Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement between FRELIMO and rebel Mozambique National Resistance (RENAMO) forces ended the fighting in 1992. In December 2004, Mozambique underwent a delicate transition as Joaquim CHISSANO stepped down after 18 years in office. His elected successor, Armando GUEBUZA, served two terms and then passed executive power to Filipe NYUSI in October 2014. RENAMO’s residual armed forces engaged in a low-level insurgency from 2012 to 2014.

 Geography
The Zambezi River flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
Location: Southeastern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates: 18 15 S, 35 00 E
Area: total: 799,380 sq km
land: 786,380 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 4,783 km border countries (6): Malawi 1,498 km, South Africa 496 km, Swaziland 108 km, Tanzania 840 km, Zambia 439 km, Zimbabwe 1,402 km
Coastline: 2,470 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical to subtropical
Terrain: mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use: agricultural land: 56.3% arable land 6.4%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 49.6% forest: 43.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,180 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods in central and southern provinces
Current Environment Issues: increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups: African 99.66% (Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Languages: Emakhuwa 25.3%, Portuguese (official) 10.7%, Xichangana 10.3%, Cisena 7.5%, Elomwe 7%, Echuwabo 5.1%, other Mozambican languages 30.1%, other 4% (1997 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 28.4%, Muslim 17.9%, Zionist Christian 15.5%, Protestant 12.2% (includes Pentecostal 10.9% and Anglican 1.3%), other 6.7%, none 18.7%, unspecified 0.7% (2007 est.)
Population: 25,930,150 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.92% (male 5,856,623/female 5,791,519)
15-24 years: 21.51% (male 2,741,474/female 2,835,474)
25-54 years: 27.24% (male 3,301,883/female 3,762,626)
55-64 years: 3.42% (male 425,312/female 462,125)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 345,408/female 407,706) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 94.8%
youth dependency ratio: 88.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.5%
potential support ratio: 15.3% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.1 years
male: 16.5 years
female: 17.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.45% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 38.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 11.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 32.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.27% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MAPUTO (capital) 1.187 million; Matola 937,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.9 median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2011 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 489 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 67.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 70 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.3 years male: 52.6 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.15 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 11.6% (2011)
Health expenditures: 7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 80.6% of population
rural: 37% of population
total: 51.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 19.4% of population
rural: 63% of population
total: 48.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 42.4% of population
rural: 10.1% of population
total: 20.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 57.6% of population
rural: 89.9% of population
total: 79.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 10.55% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,505,900 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 39,000 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 15.6% (2011)
Education expenditures: 6.5% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 58.8%
male: 73.3%
female: 45.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years male: 10 years
female: 9 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 39.4% male: 40.2%
female: 38.7% (2012 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
etymology: named for the offshore island of Mozambique; the island was apparently named after Mussa al-BIK, an influential Arab slave trader who set himself up as sultan on the island in the 15th century
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Maputo
geographic coordinates: 25 57 S, 32 35 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city (cidade)*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Cidade de Maputo*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Independence: 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Constitution: previous 1975, 1990; latest adopted 16 November 2004, effective 21 December 2004; amended 2007; note - amendments drafted in late 2013 were rejected by parliament in late 2015 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of Portuguese civil law, and customary law; note - in rural, predominately Muslim villages with no formal legal system, Islamic law may be applied
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Filipe Jacinto NYUSI (since 15 January 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho DO ROSARIO (since 17 January 2015); Alberto Clementino Antonio VAQUINA removed from office 9 January 2015

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president elected directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for 2 consecutive terms); election last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Filipe NYUSI elected president; percent of vote - Filipe NYUSI (FRELIMO) 57.0%, Afonso DHLAKAMA (RENAMO) 36.6%, Daviz SIMANGO (MDM) 6.4%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members - including 2 representing Mozambicans abroad - directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 15 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - FRELIMO 55.9%, RENAMO 32.5%, MDM 8.4%, other 3.3%; seats by party - FRELIMO 144, RENAMO 89, MDM 17
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 5 judges); Constitutional Council (consists of 7 judges); note - the Higher Council of the Judiciary is responsible for judiciary management and discipline judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president and vice president appointed by Mozambique president in consultation with the Higher Council of the Judiciary (CSMJ) and with ratification by the legislature; other judges elected by the legislature; judges serve 5-year renewable terms; Constitutional Council judges appointed - 1 by the president, 5 by the legislature, and 1 by the CSMJ; judges serve 5-year nonrenewable terms

subordinate courts: Administrative Court (capital city only); provincial courts or Tribunais Judicias de Provincia; District Courts or Tribunais Judicias de Districto; customs courts; maritime courts; courts marshal; labor courts; community courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Movement of Mozambique (Movimento Democratico de Mocambique) or MDM [Daviz SIMANGO] Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or FRELIMO [Filipe NYOSOI] Mozambique National Resistance (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana) or RENAMO [Afonso DHLAKAMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, CPLP, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF (observer), OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): national colors: green, black, yellow, white, red
National anthem: name: "Patria Amada" (Lovely Fatherland)
lyrics/music: Salomao J. MANHICA/unknown

note: adopted 2002
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carlos dos SANTOS (since 28 January 2016)
chancery: 1525 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador H. Dean PITTMAN (since 18 February 2016)
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P.O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (21) 49 2797
FAX: [258] (21) 49 0114
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 Economy
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist policies, economic mismanagement, and a brutal civil war from 1977 to 1992 further impoverished the country. In 1987, the government embarked on a series of macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy. These steps, combined with donor assistance and with political stability since the multi-party elections in 1994, propelled the country’s GDP from $4 billion in 1993, following the war, to about $34 billion in 2015. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, more than half the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's work force. Citizens rioted in September 2010 after fuel, water, electricity, and bread price increases were announced. In an attempt to lessen the negative impact on the population, the government implemented subsidies, decreased taxes and tariffs, and instituted other fiscal measures. A substantial trade imbalance persists, although aluminum production from the Mozal Aluminum Smelter has significantly boosted export earnings in recent years. In 2012, The Mozambican Government took over Portugal's last remaining share in the Cahora Bassa Hydroelectricity Company, a significant contributor to the Southern African Power Pool. The government has plans to expand the Cahora Bassa Dam and build additional dams to increase its electricity exports and fulfill the needs of its burgeoning domestic industries. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt was reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives. However, in 2013, the Mozambique Tuna Company (EMATUM) issued an $850 million bond fully guaranteed by the Mozambican government primarily for the purpose of purchasing tuna boats. The government is attempting to reschedule this debt, in the expectation that a pending deal with a consortium led by a US company will provide enough revenue to pay off this debt. The pending deal has the potential to transform Mozambique’s economy and dramatically increase GDP. Mozambique grew at an average annual rate of 6%-8% in the decade up to 2015, one of Africa's strongest performances. Mozambique's ability to attract large investment projects in natural resources is expected to sustain high growth rates in coming years although weaker global demand for commodities is likely to weaken expected revenues from these vast resources, including natural gas, coal, titanium, and hydroelectric capacity.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $35.31 billion (2016 est.) $33.79 billion (2015 est.) $31.7 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $12.05 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.5% (2016 est.) 6.6% (2015 est.) 7.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,200 (2016 est.) $1,200 (2015 est.) $1,200 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 5% of GDP (2016 est.) 14.7% of GDP (2015 est.) 29.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 67.1%
government consumption: 23.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.4%
investment in inventories: 4.3%
exports of goods and services: 31.3%
imports of goods and services: -63.3% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 67.1%
government consumption: 23.2%
investment in fixed capital: 37.4%
investment in inventories: 4.3%
exports of goods and services: 31.3%
imports of goods and services: -63.3% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (manioc, tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Industries: aluminum, petroleum products, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco, food, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 13.31 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 81%
industry: 6%
services: 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate: 17% (2007 est.) 21% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line: 52% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.7% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 45.6 (2008) 47.3 (2002)
Budget: revenues: $2.554 billion
expenditures: $3.609 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.2% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 100.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 75.8% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 17.1% (2016 est.) 3.6% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$4.035 billion (2016 est.) -$5.776 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $3.132 billion (2016 est.) $3.413 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, prawns, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity
Exports - partners: South Africa 24.9%, China 10.2%, Italy 8.9%, India 8.9%, Belgium 7.9%, Spain 4.4% (2015)
Imports: $5.151 billion (2016 est.) $7.577 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, fuel, chemicals, metal products, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: South Africa 26.8%, China 19.3%, India 13.9% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.541 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.582 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $9.554 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $9.743 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: meticais (MZM) per US dollar - 62.07 (2016 est.) 39.983 (2015 est.) 39.983 (2014 est.) 31.367 (2013 est.) 28.38 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 17 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 10 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 7.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.6 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 10.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 89.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 19,920 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 5.6 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 3.8 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.832 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.9 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 20.135 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 80 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: a fair telecommunications system that is shackled with a heavy state presence, lack of competition, and high operating costs and charges

domestic: extremely low fixed-line teledensity contrasts with rapid growth in the mobile-cellular network; mobile-cellular coverage now includes all the main cities and key roads; mobile-cellular teledensity now about 80 per 100 persons

international: country code - 258; landing point for the EASSy and SEACOM fiber-optic submarine cable systems; satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: 1 state-run TV station supplemented by private TV station; Portuguese state TV's African service, RTP Africa, and Brazilian-owned TV Miramar are available; state-run radio provides nearly 100% territorial coverage and broadcasts in multiple languages; a n (2007)
Internet country code: .mz
Internet users: total: 2.277 million percent of population: 9% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 98 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 4 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 77

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 29
under 914 m: 38 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 972 km; refined products 278 km (2013)
Railways: total 4,787 km

narrow gauge: 4,787 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 30,331 km
paved: 6,303 km
unpaved: 24,028 km (2009)
Waterways: 460 km (Zambezi River navigable to Tete and along Cahora Bassa Lake) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 2

by type: cargo 2

foreign-owned: 2 (Belgium 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Beira, Maputo, Nacala
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 Military
Military branches: Mozambique Armed Defense Forces (Forcas Armadas de Defesa de Mocambique, FADM): Mozambique Army, Mozambique Navy (Marinha de Guerra de Mocambique, MGM), Mozambique Air Force (Forca Aerea de Mocambique, FAM) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: registration for military service is mandatory for all males and females at 18 years of age; 18-35 years of age for selective compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary service; 2-year service obligation; women may serve as officers or enlisted (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: South Africa has placed military units to assist police operations along the border of Lesotho, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique to control smuggling, poaching, and illegal migration
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 9,082 (Congo, Democratic Republic of the) (2015) IDPs: 61,102 (2015 floods) (2015)
Illicit drugs: southern African transit point for South Asian hashish and heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability make the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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