India Population: 1,266,883,598

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 History
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the world's oldest, flourished during the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. and extended into northwestern India. Aryan tribes from the northwest infiltrated the Indian subcontinent about 1500 B.C.; their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. The Maurya Empire of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. - which reached its zenith under ASHOKA - united much of South Asia. The Golden Age ushered in by the Gupta dynasty (4th to 6th centuries A.D.) saw a flowering of Indian science, art, and culture. Islam spread across the subcontinent over a period of 700 years. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Turks and Afghans invaded India and established the Delhi Sultanate. In the early 16th century, the Emperor BABUR established the Mughal Dynasty, which ruled India for more than three centuries. European explorers began establishing footholds in India during the 16th century. By the 19th century, Great Britain had become the dominant political power on the subcontinent. The British Indian Army played a vital role in both World Wars. Years of nonviolent resistance to British rule, led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU, eventually resulted in Indian independence, which was granted in 1947. Large-scale communal violence took place before and after the subcontinent partition into two separate states - India and Pakistan. The neighboring nations have fought three wars since independence, the last of which was in 1971 and resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. India's nuclear weapons tests in 1998 emboldened Pakistan to conduct its own tests that same year. In November 2008, terrorists originating from Pakistan conducted a series of coordinated attacks in Mumbai, India's financial capital. Despite pressing problems such as significant overpopulation, environmental degradation, extensive poverty, and widespread corruption, economic growth following the launch of economic reforms in 1991 and a massive youthful population are driving India's emergence as a regional and global power.

 Geography
Dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 N, 77 00 E
Area: total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km
water: 314,070 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than one-third the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 13,888 km border countries (6): Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km
Coastline: 7,000 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north
Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 60.5% arable land 52.8%; permanent crops 4.2%; permanent pasture 3.5% forest: 23.1%
other: 16.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 667,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes volcanism: Barren Island (elev. 354 m) in the Andaman Sea has been active in recent years
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Indian(s)
adjective: Indian
Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)
Languages: Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9% note: English enjoys the status of subsidiary official language but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the most widely spoken language and primary tongue of 41% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya, Punjabi, Assamese, Kashmiri, Sindhi, and Sanskrit; Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language (2001 census)
Religions: Hindu 79.8%, Muslim 14.2%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.7%, other and unspecified 2% (2011 est.)
Population: 1,266,883,598 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 27.71% (male 186,420,229/female 164,611,755)
15-24 years: 17.99% (male 121,009,850/female 106,916,692)
25-54 years: 40.91% (male 267,203,029/female 251,070,105)
55-64 years: 7.3% (male 46,398,574/female 46,105,489)
65 years and over: 6.09% (male 36,549,003/female 40,598,872) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 52.4%
youth dependency ratio: 43.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 8.6%
potential support ratio: 11.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 27.6 years
male: 26.9 years
female: 28.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.19% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 19.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 32.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.38% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: NEW DELHI (capital) 25.703 million; Mumbai 21.043 million; Kolkata 11.766 million; Bangalore 10.087 million; Chennai 9.62 million; Hyderabad 8.944 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.08 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.9 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2005/06 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 174 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 40.5 deaths/1,000 live births male: 39.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 41.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.5 years male: 67.3 years
female: 69.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.45 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 54.8% (2007/08)
Health expenditures: 4.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.7 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.1% of population
rural: 92.6% of population
total: 94.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.9% of population
rural: 7.4% of population
total: 5.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 62.6% of population
rural: 28.5% of population
total: 39.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 37.4% of population
rural: 71.5% of population
total: 60.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.26% (2013 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 2,118,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 67,600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 43.5% (2006)
Education expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.2%
male: 81.3%
female: 60.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 10.7% male: 10.4%
female: 11.6% (2012 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form: India
local long form: Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form: India/Bharat
etymology: the English name derives from the Indus River; the Indian name "Bharat" may derive from the "Bharatas" tribe mentioned in the Vedas of the second millennium B.C.; the name is also associated with Emperor Bharata, the legendary conqueror of all of India
Government type: federal parliamentary republic
Capital: name: New Delhi
geographic coordinates: 28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference: UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal

note: although its status is that of a union territory, the official name of Delhi is National Capital Territory of Delhi
Independence: 15 August 1947 (from the UK)
National holiday: Republic Day, 26 January (1950)
Constitution: previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950; amended many times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)

head of government: Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)

cabinet: Union Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister, appointed by the president elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 19 July 2012 (next to be held in July 2017); vice president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and state legislatures for a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 7 August 2012 (next to be held in August 2017); following legislative elections, the prime minister is elected by parliamentary members of the majority party

election results: Pranab MUKHERJEE elected president; percent of vote - Pranab MUKHERJEE (INC prior to election) 69.3%, Purno SANGMA (independent) 30.7%; Mohammad Hamid ANSARI reelected vice president; electoral college vote - Mohammad Hamid ANSARI 490, Jaswant SINGH 238
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (245 seats; 233 members indirectly elected by state and territorial assemblies by proportional representation vote, and 12 members appointed by the president; members serve 6-year terms) and the House of the People or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 2 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: People's Assembly - last held April-May 2014 in 10 phases; (next to be held by May 2019)

election results: People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - BJP 31.0%, INC 19.3%, AITC 3.8%, SP 3.4%, AIADMK 3.3%, CPI(M) 3.3%, TDP 2.6%, YSRC 2.5%, AAP 2.1%, SAD 1.8%, BJD 1.7%, SS 1.7%, NCP 1.6%, RJD 1.3%, TRS 1.3%, LJP 0.4%, other 15.9%, independent 3.0%; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, other 33, independent 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices) judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65

subordinate courts: High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court note: in mid-2011, India’s Cabinet approved the "National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform" to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases; as of mid-July 2015, the Indian Government was considering the introduction of pre-trial hearing as a method for reducing the backlog
Political parties and leaders: Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL] All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA] All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE] Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI] Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH] Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK] Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT] Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI] Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN] Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR] Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV] Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV] Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL] Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY] Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) [K. Chandrashekar RAO] Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU] YSR Congress (YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY] note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group) Bajrang Dal (militant religious organization) Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization) Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization) Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Pravin TOGADIA] (militant religious organization) other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy
International organization participation: ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; Bengal tiger; lotus flower; national colors: saffron, white, green
National anthem: name: "Jana-Gana-Mana" (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Arun Kumar SINGH (since 18 May 2015)
chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008;
telephone: [1](202) 939-7000 telephone: [1] (202) 939-7000
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Richard Rahul VERMA (since 16 January 2015)
embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [91] (11) 2419-8000
FAX: [91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)
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 Economy
India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the work force is in agriculture, but services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output but employing less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged under 7% per year from 1997 to 2011. India's economic growth began slowing in 2011 because of a decline in investment caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about slow world growth. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee. Growth rebounded in 2014 and 2015, with both years exceeding 7%. Investors’ perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee. Since the election, economic reforms have focused on administrative and governance changes largely because the ruling party remains a minority in India’s upper house of Parliament, which must approve most bills. Despite a high growth rate compared to the rest of the world, in 2015, India’s government-owned banks faced mounting bad debt, resulting in low credit growth and restrained economic growth. The outlook for India's long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, India's discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration are significant long-term challenges.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $8.721 trillion (2016 est.) $8.103 trillion (2015 est.) $7.534 trillion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.251 trillion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.6% (2016 est.) 7.6% (2015 est.) 7.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,700 (2016 est.) $6,300 (2015 est.) $5,900 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 30.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 31.3% of GDP (2015 est.) 32.8% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 60.8%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 27.6%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 19%
imports of goods and services: -21.8% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 60.8%
government consumption: 11.4%
investment in fixed capital: 27.6%
investment in inventories: 3%
exports of goods and services: 19%
imports of goods and services: -21.8% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish
Industries: textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals
Industrial production growth rate: 7.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 513.7 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 49%
industry: 20%
services: 31% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8.4% (2016 est.) 8.4% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 29.8% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 31.1% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.6 (2012) 37.8 (1997)
Budget: revenues: $200.1 billion
expenditures: $283.1 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 8.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 52.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 52.4% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as in
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.6% (2016 est.) 4.9% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$31.97 billion (2016 est.) -$22.09 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $271.6 billion (2016 est.) $272.4 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum products, precious stones, vehicles, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, cereals, apparel
Exports - partners: US 15.2%, UAE 11.4%, Hong Kong 4.6% (2015)
Imports: $402.4 billion (2016 est.) $409.2 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: crude oil, precious stones, machinery, chemicals, fertilizer, plastics, iron and steel
Imports - partners: China 15.5%, UAE 5.5%, Saudi Arabia 5.4%, Switzerland 5.3%, US 5.2% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $359.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $351.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $507 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $480.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $351.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $296.8 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $149 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $139 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.516 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $1.558 trillion (31 December 2014 est.) $1.139 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar - 68.3 (2016 est.) 64.152 (2015 est.) 64.152 (2014 est.) 61.03 (2013 est.) 53.44 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 1.218 trillion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 973 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 200 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports: 5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 311 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 68.7% of total installed capacity (26 February 2014 )
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 2% of total installed capacity (26 February 2014 )
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 16.9% of total installed capacity (26 February 2014 )
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 12.4% of total installed capacity (26 February 2014 )
Crude oil - production: 761,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 3.785 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 5.675 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 4.775 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 3.735 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1.471 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 401,900 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 30.4 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 52.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 21.7 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 1.489 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.887 billion Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 1,011.054 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 81 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest-growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 1 billion in 2015, an overall teledensi

domestic: mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles, each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity

international: country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including SEA-ME-WE-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), SEA-ME-WE-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at (2015)
Broadcast media: Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; in 2015, more than 230 million homes h (2015)
Internet country code: .in
Internet users: total: 325.441 million percent of population: 26% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 346 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 253
over 3,047 m: 22
2,438 to 3,047 m: 59
1,524 to 2,437 m: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 82
under 914 m: 14 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 93
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 38
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
Heliports: 45 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate/gas 9 km; gas 13,581 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,054 km; oil 8,943 km; oil/gas/water 20 km; refined products 11,069 km (2013)
Railways: total 68,525 km
broad gauge: 58,404 km 1.676-m gauge (23,654 electrified)
narrow gauge: 9,499 km 1.000-m gauge; 622 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 4,699,024 km


note: includes 96,214 km of national highways and expressways, 147,800 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads (2015)
Waterways: 14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 340

by type: bulk carrier 104, cargo 78, chemical tanker 22, container 14, liquefied gas 11, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 15, petroleum tanker 92

foreign-owned: 10 (China 1, Hong Kong 2, Jersey 2, Malaysia 1, UAE 4)

registered in other countries: 76 (Cyprus 4, Dominica 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 10, Nigeria 1, Panama 24, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Singapore 21, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam container port(s) (TEUs): Chennai (1,558,343), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,307,622) LNG terminal(s) (import): Dabhol, Dahej, Hazira
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 Military
Military branches: Army, Navy (includes naval air arm), Air Force, Coast Guard (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, currently serve in combat roles as pilots, and will soon be allowed in all combat roles (2016)
Military expenditures: 2.4% of GDP (2014) 2.4% of GDP (2013) 2.5% of GDP (2012) 2.6% of GDP (2011) 2.7% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas) India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 110,098 (Tibet/China); 64,208 (Sri Lanka); 15,735 (Burma); 10,196 (Afghanistan) (2015) IDPs: 612,000 (armed conflict and intercommunal violence) (2015)
Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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