Tonga Population: 106,322

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 History
Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.

 Geography
Archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)
Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 175 00 W
Area: total: 747 sq km
land: 717 sq km
water: 30 sq km

Size comparison: four times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 419 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Terrain: most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation on Kao Island 1,033 m
Natural resources: fish, fertile soil
Land use: arable land: 21.33%
permanent crops: 14.67%
other: 64% (2011)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou volcanism: moderate volcanic activity; Fonualei (elev. 180 m) has shown frequent activity in recent years, while Niuafo'ou (elev. 260 m), which last erupted in 1985, has forced evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Late and Tofua
Current Environment Issues: deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Tongan(s)
adjective: Tongan
Ethnic groups: Polynesian, Europeans
Languages: Tongan (official), English (official)
Religions: Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Population: 106,322 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 36.2% (male 19,545/female 18,927)
15-24 years: 19.2% (male 10,432/female 9,935)
25-54 years: 33% (male 17,549/female 17,562)
55-64 years: 5.4% (male 2,779/female 2,994)
65 years and over: 6.2% (male 3,034/female 3,565) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 75.7 %
youth dependency ratio: 65.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 10.3 %
potential support ratio: 9.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 21.8 years
male: 21.3 years
female: 22.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.14% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 24.12 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 4.87 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -17.87 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 23% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.86 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 110 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.78 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.6 years
male: 74.16 years
female: 77.09 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.46 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Health expenditures: 5.1% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.29 physicians/1,000 population (2002)
Hospital bed density: 2.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 96% of population
total: 96% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 4% of population
total: 4% of population (2010 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 57.6% (2008)
Education expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2004)
Literacy: definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99.1% (2006 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years
male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2007)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 11.9%
male: 9.9%
female: 15.1% (2003)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
local long form: Pule'anga Tonga
local short form: Tonga
former: Friendly Islands
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Nuku'alofa
geographic coordinates: 21 08 S, 175 12 W
time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 3 island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
National holiday: National Day, 4 November (1875)
Constitution: 4 November 1875; revised 1967
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King TUPOU VI (since 18 March 2012); note - King George TUPOU V died on 18 March 2012 in Hong Kong; he was succeeded by his brother Crown Prince TUPOUTO'A Lavaka, who took the throne name TUPOU VI

head of government: Prime Minister Lord Siale'ataonga TU'IVAKANO (since 22 December 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet is nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

note: there is also a Privy Council that advises the monarch

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister elected by and from the members of parliament and appointed by the monarch

election results: Lord Siale'ataonga TU'IVAKANO elected by parliament on 21 December 2010 with 14 of 26 votes
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (26 seats - 9 for nobles elected from among the country's 29 nobles, 17 members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 25 November 2010 (next to be held in 2014)

election results: Peoples Representatives: percent of vote - independents 67.3%, Democratic Party 28.5%, other 4.2%; seats - Democratic Party 12, independents 5
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and a number of judges determined by the monarch); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are brought before the King in Privy Council, the monarch's advisory organ that has both judicial and legislative powers judge selection and term of office: judge appointments and tenures made by the King in Privy Council, judge appointments subject to consent of the Legislative Assembly

subordinate courts: Supreme Court; Magistrate's Courts; Land Courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands [Samuela 'Akilisi POHIVA] People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tesina FUKO] Sustainable Nation-Building Party [Sione FONUA] Tonga Democratic Labor Party [NA] Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM [NA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman] Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): red cross on white field; arms equal length
National anthem: name: "Ko e fasi `o e tu"i `o e `Otu Tonga" (Song of the King of the Tonga Islands)
lyrics/music: Uelingatoni Ngu TUPOUMALOHI/Karl Gustavus SCHMITT

note: in use since 1875; the anthem is more commonly known as "Fasi Fakafonua" (National Song)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Sonatane Tu'akinamolahi TAUMOEPEAU-TUPOU
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400B, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (800) 345-6541
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the US ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
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 Economy
Tonga has a small, open, South Pacific island economy. It has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, vanilla beans, and yams are the main crops. Agricultural exports, including fish, make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from Tongan communities overseas to offset its trade deficit. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. Tonga had 39,000 visitors in 2006. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, especially the encouragement of investment, and is committing increased funds for health and education. Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well developed social services. High unemployment among the young, moderate inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures are major issues facing the government.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $801 million (2012 est.) $789.4 million (2011 est.) $778.8 million (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $476 million (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.4% (2012 est.) 1.5% (2011 est.) 1.6% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $7,700 (2012 est.) $7,600 (2011 est.) $7,500 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 97.7%
government consumption: 17%
investment in fixed capital: 29.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 17.5%
imports of goods and services: -61.4% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 97.7%
government consumption: 17%
investment in fixed capital: 29.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 17.5%
imports of goods and services: -61.4% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper; fish
Industries: tourism, construction, fishing
Industrial production growth rate: 0.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 39,960 (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 31.8%
industry: 30.6%
services: 2,003% (2003 est.)
Unemployment rate: 13% (FY03/04 est.)
Population below poverty line: 24% (FY03/04)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $116.3 million
expenditures: $116.3 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 24.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (2012 est.) 6.3% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$48.1 million (2012 est.) -$29.8 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $8.4 million (2012 est.) $8 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops
Exports - partners: South Korea 17.8%, US 16.4%, NZ 15.1%, Fiji 10.9%, Japan 9.2%, Samoa 9.1%, American Samoa 5.8%, Australia 5% (2012)
Imports: $121.9 million (2012 est.) $131 million (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners: Fiji 38%, NZ 23.5%, US 10.1%, China 9.9% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $152.4 million (31 December 2012 est.) $143.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $198.1 million (31 December 2012 est.) $190.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $61.43 million (31 December 2012 est.) $61.47 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: pa'anga (TOP) per US dollar - 1.7195 (2012 est.) 1.729 (2011 est.) 1.906 (2010 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 41 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 207
Electricity - consumption: 38.13 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 12,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,221 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,202 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 155,000 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 30,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 177
Cellular Phones in use: 55,000 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communications Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; SCT granted approval to introduce high-speed digital service for telephone, Internet, and television while TCC has exclusive rights to operate the mobile-phone network; international telecom services are provided by government-owned Tonga Telecommunications International

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 80 telephones per 100 persons; fully automatic switched network

international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: 2 state-owned TV stations and 2 privately owned TV stations; satellite and cable TV services are available; 2 state-owned and 3 privately owned radio stations; Radio Australia broadcasts available via satellite (2009)
Internet country code: .to
Internet hosts: 5,367 (2012)
Internet users: 8,400 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 6 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 175
Airports (paved runways): total 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 680 km
paved: 184 km
unpaved: 496 km (2000)
Merchant marine: total 7

by type: cargo 4, carrier 1, passenger/cargo 2

foreign-owned: 2 (Australia 1, UK 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Nuku'alofa, Neiafu, Pangai
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 Military
Military branches: Tonga Defense Services (TDS): Land Force (Royal Guard), Maritime Force (includes Royal Marines, Air Wing) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 16 years of age for voluntary enlistment (with parental consent); no conscription; the king retains the right to call up "all those capable of bearing arms" in wartime (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 24,460
females age 16-49: 24,041 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 20,956
females age 16-49: 20,577 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 1,196
female: 1,134 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
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