Tonga Population: 106,513

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 History
Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.

 Geography
Archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)
Location: Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 175 00 W
Area: total: 747 sq km
land: 717 sq km
water: 30 sq km

Size comparison: four times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 419 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Terrain: mostly flat islands with limestone bedrock formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic rock
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: fish, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 43.1% arable land 22.2%; permanent crops 15.3%; permanent pasture 5.6% forest: 12.5%
other: 44.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou volcanism: moderate volcanic activity; Fonualei (elev. 180 m) has shown frequent activity in recent years, while Niuafo'ou (elev. 260 m), which last erupted in 1985, has forced evacuations; other historically active volcanoes include Late and Tofua
Current Environment Issues: deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Tongan(s)
adjective: Tongan
Ethnic groups: Tongan 96.6%, part-Tongan 1.7%, other 1.7%, unspecified 0.03% (2006 est.)
Languages: English and Tongan 87%, Tongan (official) 10.7%, English (official) 1.2%, other 1.1%, unspecified 0.03% (2006 est.)
Religions: Protestant 64.9% (includes Free Wesleyan Church 37.3%, Free Church of Tonga 11.4%, Church of Tonga 7.2%, Tokaikolo Christian Church 2.6%, Assembly of God 2.3%, Seventh Day Adventist 2.2%, Constitutional Church of Tonga 0.9%, Anglican 0.8% and Full Gospel Church 0.2%), Mormon 16.8%, Roman Catholic 15.6%, other 1.1%, none 0.03%, unspecified 1.7% (2006 est.)
Population: 106,513 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 34.47% (male 18,656/female 18,061)
15-24 years: 19.57% (male 10,671/female 10,169)
25-54 years: 33.92% (male 18,045/female 18,080)
55-64 years: 5.7% (male 3,000/female 3,072)
65 years and over: 6.35% (male 3,064/female 3,695) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 74.3%
youth dependency ratio: 64.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.2%
potential support ratio: 9.8% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 22.6 years
male: 22.2 years
female: 23.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.01% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 22.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 4.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -17.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 23.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.71% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: NUKU'ALOFA 25,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 24.9 note: median age at first birth among women 25-49 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 124 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 12 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 11.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.2 years male: 74.7 years
female: 77.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.18 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Health expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.56 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 2.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.7% of population
rural: 99.6% of population
total: 99.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.3% of population
rural: 0.4% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97.6% of population
rural: 89% of population
total: 91% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.4% of population
rural: 11% of population
total: 9% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 41.1% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 1.9% (2012)
Literacy: definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.3%
female: 99.4% (2015 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
local long form: Pule'anga Tonga
local short form: Tonga
former: Friendly Islands
etymology: "tonga" means "south" in the Tongan language and refers to the country's geographic position in relation to central Polynesia
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Nuku'alofa
geographic coordinates: 21 08 S, 175 12 W
time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 5 island divisions; 'Eua, Ha'apai, Ongo Niua, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Independence: 4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
National holiday: King's Official Birthday, 4 July (1959); Constitution Day (National Day), 4 November (1875)
Constitution: adopted 4 November 1875, revised 1988; amended many times, last in 2014 (2016)
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King TUPOU VI (since 18 March 2012); note - on 18 March 2012, King George TUPOU V died and his brother, Crown Prince TUPOUTO'A Lavaka, assumed the throne as TUPOU VI

head of government: Prime Minister 'Akilisi POHIVA (since 30 December 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet nominated by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly and appointed by the monarch; election last held on 21 December 2010 (next to be held in November 2014)

election results: 'Akilisi POHIVA (Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands) elected prime minister by parliament on 29 December 2014; vote - 15 of 26 votes

note: a Privy Council advises the monarch
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (26 seats; 17 people's representatives directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 9 indirectly elected by hereditary leaders; members serve 3-year terms)

elections: last held on 27 November 2014 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - Democratic Party 9, noble's representatives 9, independent 8
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and a number of judges determined by the monarch); note - appeals beyond the Court of Appeal are brought before the King in Privy Council, the monarch's advisory organ that has both judicial and legislative powers judge selection and term of office: judge appointments and tenures made by the King in Privy Council, judge appointments subject to consent of the Legislative Assembly

subordinate courts: Supreme Court; Magistrate's Courts; Land Courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party of the Friendly Islands [Samuela 'Akilisi POHIVA] People's Democratic Party or PDP [Tesina FUKO] Sustainable Nation-Building Party [Sione FONUA] Tonga Democratic Labor Party Tonga Human Rights and Democracy Movement or THRDM
Political pressure groups and leaders: Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman] Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): red cross on white field, arms equal length; national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Ko e fasi `o e tu"i `o e `Otu Tonga" (Song of the King of the Tonga Islands)
lyrics/music: Uelingatoni Ngu TUPOUMALOHI/Karl Gustavus SCHMITT

note: in use since 1875; more commonly known as "Fasi Fakafonua" (National Song)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mahe'uli'uli Sandhurst TUPOUNIUA (since 10 September 2013)
chancery: 250 E. 51st Street, New York, NY, 10022
telephone: [1] (917) 369-1025
FAX: [1] (917) 369-1024
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the US Ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
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 Economy
Tonga has a small, open, island economy and is the last constitutional monarchy among the Pacific Island countries. It has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, vanilla beans, and yams are the main crops. Agricultural exports, including fish, make up two-thirds of total exports. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. Tonga had 45,000 visitors in 2013. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from overseas Tongans to offset its trade deficit. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, encouraging investment, and is committing increased funds for healthcare and education. Tonga's English-speaking and educated workforce offer a viable labor market, and the tropical climate provides fertile soil. Renewable energy and deep sea mining also offer opportunities for investment. Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well developed social services. The government faces high unemployment among the young, moderate inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $557 million (2016 est.) $542.2 million (2015 est.) $524.3 million (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $430 million (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.7% (2016 est.) 3.4% (2015 est.) 2.9% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,300 (2016 est.) $5,200 (2015 est.) $5,000 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 78.6%
government consumption: 21.4%
investment in fixed capital: 41.3%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 19%
imports of goods and services: -60.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 78.6%
government consumption: 21.4%
investment in fixed capital: 41.3%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 19%
imports of goods and services: -60.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, sweet potatoes, cassava, taro and kava
Industries: tourism, construction, fishing
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 33,800 (2011 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 27.5%
industry: 27.5%
services: 2,006% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate: 1.1% (2011 est.) 1.1% (2006)
Population below poverty line: 24% (FY03/04 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $132.7 million
expenditures: $132.7 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 30.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 45.1% of GDP (2013) 46.5% of GDP (2012)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.2% (2016 est.) -1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$33 million (2016 est.) -$34 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $35 million (2016 est.) $30.6 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops
Exports - partners: Japan 16%, US 15.4%, Fiji 12.8%, NZ 12.5%, South Korea 11%, Samoa 10.7%, Australia 7.5%, American Samoa 6.8% (2015)
Imports: $288.2 million (2016 est.) $263 million (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners: Fiji 37.7%, NZ 21.2%, China 14.2%, US 6.4%, Australia 4.5% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $180.7 million (31 December 2016 est.) $156.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $233.1 million (31 December 2016 est.) $206.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $117.2 million (31 December 2016 est.) $110.2 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: pa'anga (TOP) per US dollar - 2.26 (2016 est.) 2.106 (2015 est.) 2.106 (2014 est.) 1.847 (2013 est.) 1.72 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 50 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 46.5 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 17,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,457 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 200,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 70,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 66 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Digicel Tonga Limited is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; both parties provide high speed Internet, mobile telephone networks, and international telecom services; Digicel also

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity about 80 telephones per 100 persons; fully automatic switched network

international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV station and 3 privately owned TV stations; satellite and cable TV services are available; 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned radio stations; Radio Australia broadcasts available via satellite (2015)
Internet country code: .to
Internet users: total: 48,000 percent of population: 45% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 6 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 680 km
paved: 184 km
unpaved: 496 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 7

by type: cargo 4, carrier 1, passenger/cargo 2

foreign-owned: 2 (Australia 1, UK 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Nuku'alofa, Neiafu, Pangai
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 Military
Military branches: Tonga Defense Services (TDS): Land Force (Royal Guard), Maritime Force (includes Royal Marines, Air Wing) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 16 years of age for voluntary enlistment (with parental consent); no conscription; the king retains the right to call up "all those capable of bearing arms" in wartime (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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