Togo Population: 7,154,237

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 Background
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, ruled Togo with a heavy hand for almost four decades. Despite the facade of multi-party elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government was largely dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967 and maintains a majority of seats in today's legislature. Upon EYADEMA's death in February 2005, the military installed the president's son, Faure GNASSINGBE, and then engineered his formal election two months later. Democratic gains since then allowed Togo to hold its first relatively free and fair legislative elections in October 2007. After years of political unrest and condemnation from international organizations for human rights abuses, Togo is finally being re-welcomed into the international community. In January 2012, Togo assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2012-13 term.

 Geography
The country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 1 10 E
Area: total: 56,785 sq km land: 54,385 sq km water: 2,400 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,647 km border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Coastline: 56 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 30 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Terrain: gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources: phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use: arable land: 44.2% permanent crops: 3.7% other: 52.1% (2011)
Irrigated land: 73 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Togolese (singular and plural) adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups: African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Languages: French (official, the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Religions: Christian 29%, Muslim 20%, indigenous beliefs 51%
Population: 7,154,237 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40.8% (male 1,461,606/female 1,453,846) 15-24 years: 20% (male 712,388/female 715,702) 25-54 years: 31.9% (male 1,132,912/female 1,148,103) 55-64 years: 4.2% (male 140,800/female 157,769) 65 years and over: 3.2% (male 100,247/female 130,864) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 80.5 % youth dependency ratio: 75.5 % elderly dependency ratio: 5 % potential support ratio: 20.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 19.5 years
male: 19.2 years female: 19.7 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.73% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 34.9 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 7.6 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 38% of total population (2011) rate of urbanization: 3.3% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LOME (capital) 1.593 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20 (1998 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 300 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 48.28 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 55.03 deaths/1,000 live births female: 41.33 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 63.62 years
male: 61.07 years female: 66.24 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.58 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 15.2% (2010)
Health expenditures: 7.7% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 89% of population rural: 40% of population total: 61% of population unimproved: urban: 11% of population rural: 60% of population total: 39% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 26% of population rural: 3% of population total: 13% of population unimproved: urban: 74% of population rural: 97% of population total: 87% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 120,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 7,700 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.3% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 20.5% (2008)
Education expenditures: 4.6% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 60.4% male: 74.1% female: 48% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12.9 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Togolese Republic conventional short form: Togo local long form: Republique Togolaise local short form: none former: French Togoland
Government type: republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Capital: name: Lome geographic coordinates: 6 07 N, 1 13 E time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 5 regions (regions, singular - region); Centrale, Kara, Maritime, Plateaux, Savanes
Independence: 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Constitution: adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system: customary law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Faure GNASSINGBE (since 4 May 2005); head of government: Prime Minister Kwesi Seleagodji AHOOMEY-ZUNU (since 23 July 2012) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the advice of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 4 March 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Faure GNASSINGBE reelected president; percent of vote - Faure GNASSINGBE 60.9%, Jean-Pierre FABRE 33.9%, Yawovi AGBOYIBO 3%, other 2.2%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (91 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 25 July 2013 (next to be held in 2018) election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UNIR 62, CST 19, Rainbow Alliance 6, UFC 3, independents 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (organized into the Criminal Chamber and the Administrative Chamber, each with a chamber president and advisors); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges including the court president) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court president appointed by decree of the president of the republic upon the proposal of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy, a 9-member judicial, advisory, and disciplinary body; other judge appointments and judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA subordinate courts: Court of Assizes (sessions court); appeals courts; tribunals of first instance (divided into civil, commercial, and correctional chambers; Court of State Security; military tribunal
Political parties and leaders: Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO] Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA Movement of the Believers of Peace and Equality or MOCEP National Alliance for Change or ANC [Jean-Pierre FABRE] Pan-African Patriotic Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO] Rainbow Alliance (a colalition including: CAR and CDPA) [Brigitte Adjamagbo JOHNSON] Rally for the Support for Development and Democracy or RSDD [Harry OLYMPIO] Save Togo Collective or CST (a coalition including: ANC and PSR) [Ata Messan Zeus AJAVON Socialist Pact for Renewal or PSR Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Gagou KOKOU] Union for the Republic or UNIR [Faure GNASSINGBE] Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s):
National anthem: name: "Salut a toi, pays de nos aieux" (Hail to Thee, Land of Our Forefathers) lyrics/music: Alex CASIMIR-DOSSEH note: adopted 1960, restored 1992; this anthem was replaced by another during one-party rule between 1979 and 1992
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Limbiye Edawa Kadangha BARIKI chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008 telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212 FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Robert E. WHITEHEAD embassy: 4332 Blvd. Gnassingbe Eyadema, Cite OUA, Lome mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome; 2300 Lome Place, Washington, DC 20521-2300 telephone: [228] 2261-5470 FAX: [228] 2261-5501
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 Economy
This small, sub-Saharan economy depends heavily on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for a significant share of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings with cotton being the most important cash crop. Togo is among the world's largest producers of phosphate and Togo seeks to develop its carbonate phosphate reserves. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has moved slowly. Progress depends on follow through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress toward legislative elections, and continued support from foreign donors. Foreign direct investment inflows have slowed over recent years. Togo completed its IMF Extended Credit Facility in 2011 and reached a HIPC debt relief completion point in 2010 at which 95% of the country''s debt was forgiven. Togo continues to work with the IMF on structural reforms.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $7.024 billion (2012 est.) $6.688 billion (2011 est.) $6.377 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $3.685 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5% (2012 est.) 4.9% (2011 est.) 4% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,100 (2012 est.) $1,100 (2011 est.) $1,100 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 14.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 16.6% of GDP (2011 est.) 11.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 88.8% government consumption: 12.3% investment in fixed capital: 25.4% investment in inventories: -0.2% exports of goods and services: 39.3% imports of goods and services: -66.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 88.8% government consumption: 12.3% investment in fixed capital: 25.4% investment in inventories: -0.2% exports of goods and services: 39.3% imports of goods and services: -66.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (manioc), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Industries: phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement, handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 5.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 2.595 million (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 65% industry: 5% services: 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3% highest 10%: 27.1% (2006)
Budget: revenues: $764.1 million expenditures: $906.1 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 20.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.6% (2012 est.) 3.6% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$418.4 million (2012 est.) -$302.7 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $987.1 million (2012 est.) $1.031 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: reexports, cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners: India 13.7%, Lebanon 10.5%, Burkina Faso 8%, Benin 7.9%, Niger 6%, China 5.8%, Netherlands 4.9%, Ghana 4.6% (2012)
Imports: $1.541 billion (2012 est.) $1.494 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners: China 41.2%, Netherlands 8%, France 5.5%, UK 5.4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $441.6 million (31 December 2012 est.) $774.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $NA (31 December 2012 est.) $643.1 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 510.53 (2012 est.) 471.87 (2011 est.) 495.28 (2010 est.) 472.19 (2009) 447.81 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 123 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 190
Electricity - consumption: 651 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 683 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 85,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 21.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 78.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 28,670 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 6,829 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.166 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 240,000 (2011) country comparison to the world: 125
Cellular Phones in use: 3.105 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile-cellular system domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 50 telephones per 100 persons with mobile-cellular use predominating international: country code - 228; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Symphonie (2010)
Broadcast media: 2 state-owned TV stations with multiple transmission sites; 5 private TV stations broadcast locally; cable TV service is available; state-owned radio network with multiple stations; several dozen private radio stations and a few community radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters available (2007)
Internet country code: .tg
Internet hosts: 1,168 (2012)
Internet users: 356,300 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 8 (2013) country comparison to the world: 162
Airports (paved runways): total 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 568 km
narrow gauge: 568 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km unpaved: 5,144 km (2000)
Waterways: 50 km (seasonally navigable by small craft on the Mono River depending on rainfall) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 61
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 38, carrier 3, chemical tanker 5, container 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 21 (China 1, Lebanon 6, Romania 1, Syria 6, Turkey 4, UAE 1, US 1, Yemen 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Kpeme, Lome
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 Military
Military branches: Togolese Armed Forces (Forces Armees Togolaise, FAT): Togolese Army (l'Armee de Terre), Togolese Navy (Forces Naval Togolaises), Togolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Togolaise, TAF), National Gendarmerie (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory and voluntary military service; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,577,572 females age 16-49: 1,589,715 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,104,536 females age 16-49: 1,158,061 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 74,036 female: 73,515 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.9% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2001, Benin claimed Togo moved boundary monuments - joint commission continues to resurvey the boundary; in 2006, 14,000 Togolese refugees remain in Benin and Ghana out of the 40,000 who fled there in 2005; talks continue between Benin and Togo on funding the Adjrala hydroelectric dam on the Mona River
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 17,371 (Ghana); 5,593 (Cote d'Ivoire) (2012) IDPs: undetermined (2012)
Illicit drugs: transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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