Swaziland Population: 1,451,428

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 History
Autonomy for the Swazis of southern Africa was guaranteed by the British in the late 19th century; independence was granted in 1968. Student and labor unrest during the 1990s pressured King MSWATI III, Africa's last absolute monarch, to grudgingly allow political reform and greater democracy, although he has backslid on these promises in recent years. A constitution came into effect in 2006, but the legal status of political parties was not defined and their status remains unclear. Swaziland has surpassed Botswana as the country with the world's highest known HIV/AIDS prevalence rate.

 Geography
Landlocked; almost completely surrounded by South Africa
Location: Southern Africa, between Mozambique and South Africa
Geographic coordinates: 26 30 S, 31 30 E
Area: total: 17,364 sq km
land: 17,204 sq km
water: 160 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land Boundaries: total: 546 km border countries (2): Mozambique 108 km, South Africa 438 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: varies from tropical to near temperate
Terrain: mostly mountains and hills; some moderately sloping plains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: asbestos, coal, clay, cassiterite, hydropower, forests, small gold and diamond deposits, quarry stone, and talc
Land use: agricultural land: 68.3% arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.8%; permanent pasture 57.7% forest: 31.7%
other: 0% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: drought
Current Environment Issues: limited supplies of potable water; wildlife populations being depleted because of excessive hunting; overgrazing; soil degradation; soil erosion
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Swazi(s)
adjective: Swazi
Ethnic groups: African 97%, European 3%
Languages: English (official, used for government business), siSwati (official)
Religions: Zionist 40% (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship), Roman Catholic 20%, Muslim 10%, other 30% (includes Anglican, Baha'i, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish)
Population: 1,451,428 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 35.5% (male 260,507/female 254,811)
15-24 years: 22.19% (male 162,880/female 159,229)
25-54 years: 34.12% (male 256,696/female 238,471)
55-64 years: 4.28% (male 24,758/female 37,399)
65 years and over: 3.9% (male 21,842/female 34,835) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 69.3%
youth dependency ratio: 63.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.1%
potential support ratio: 16.5% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 21.4 years
male: 21.2 years
female: 21.7 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.1% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 24.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 13.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 21.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MBABANE (capital) 66,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.66 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.5 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2006/07 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 389 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 50.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 54.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 46.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 51.6 years male: 52.2 years
female: 51 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.74 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 65.2% (2010)
Health expenditures: 9.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 93.6% of population
rural: 68.9% of population
total: 74.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 6.4% of population
rural: 31.1% of population
total: 25.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 63.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 57.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 36.9% of population
rural: 44% of population
total: 42.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 28.8% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 218,600 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,800 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 14.8% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5.8% (2014)
Education expenditures: 7.1% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.5%
male: 87.4%
female: 87.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Swaziland
conventional short form: Swaziland
local long form: Umbuso weSwatini
local short form: eSwatini
etymology: "Land of the Swazi" people; the name "Swazi" derives from 19th century King MSWATI II, under whose rule Swazi territory was expanded and unified
Government type: absolute monarchy
Capital: name: Mbabane (administrative capital); Lobamba (royal and legislative capital)
geographic coordinates: 26 19 S, 31 08 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 4 districts; Hhohho, Lubombo, Manzini, Shiselweni
Independence: 6 September 1968 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 September (1968)
Constitution: previous 1968, 1978; latest signed by the king 26 July 2005, effective 8 February 2006 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil, common, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age
Executive branch: chief of state: King MSWATI III (since 25 April 1986)

head of government: Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso DLAMINI (since 23 October 2008); Deputy Prime Minister Themba Nhlanganiso MASUKU (since 2008)

cabinet: Cabinet recommended by the prime minister, confirmed by the monarch elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; prime minister appointed by the monarch from among elected members of the House of Assembly
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Libandla consists of the Senate (30 seats; 20 members appointed by the monarch and 10 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the House of Assembly; members serve 5-year terms) and the House of Assembly (65 seats; 55 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote and 10 members appointed by the monarch; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: House of Assembly - last held on 20 September 2013 (next scheduled for September 2018)

election results: House of Assembly - no results of the election were released; note - balloting is done on a nonparty basis; for each constituency the three candidates with the most votes in the first round of voting are narrowed to a single winner by a second round
Judicial branch: highest court(s): the Supreme Court of the Judicature comprising the Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and at least 5 justices) and the High Court (consists of the chief justice - ex officio - and at least 4 justices); note - the Supreme Court has jurisdiction in all constitutional matters judge selection and term of office: justices of the Supreme Court of the Judicature appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Judicial Service Commission or JCS, a judicial advisory body consisting of the Supreme Court Chief Justice, 4 members appointed by the monarch, and the JCS head; justices of both courts eligible for retirement at age 65 with mandatory retirement at age 75 for Supreme Court justices and at age 70 for High Court justices

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts; National Swazi Courts for administering customary/traditional laws (jurisdiction restricted to customary law for Swazi citizens) note: the national constitution as amended in 2006 shifted judicial power from the monarch and vested it exclusively in the judiciary
Political parties and leaders: the status of political parties, previously banned, is unclear under the 2006 Constitution; the following are considered political associations: African United Democratic Party or AUDP [Stanley MAUNDZISA] Ngwane National Liberatory Congress or NNLC [Alvit DLAMINI] People's United Democratic Movement or PUDEMO [Mario MASUKU] Swaziland Democratic Party ro SWADEPA [Jan SITHOLE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Swaziland Democracy Campaign Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions Swaziland Solidarity Network or SSN
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion, elephant; national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Nkulunkulu Mnikati wetibusiso temaSwati" (Oh God, Bestower of the Blessings of the Swazi)
lyrics/music: Andrease Enoke Fanyana SIMELANE/David Kenneth RYCROFT

note: adopted 1968; uses elements of both ethnic Swazi and Western music styles
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Abednigo Mandla NTSHANGASE (since 19 July 2010)
chancery: 1712 New Hampshire Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone: [1] (202) 234-5002
FAX: [1] (202) 234-8254
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lisa PETERSON (since January 2016)
embassy: corner of MR 103 and Cultural Center Drive, Ezulwini
mailing address: P.O. Box D202, The Gables, H106
telephone: [268] 2417-9000
FAX: [268] 2416-3344
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 Economy
Surrounded by South Africa, except for a short border with Mozambique, Swaziland depends on South Africa for 60% of its exports and for more than 90% of its imports. Swaziland's currency is pegged to the South African rand, effectively relinquishing Swaziland's monetary policy to South Africa. The government is heavily dependent on customs duties from the Southern African Customs Union (SACU), and worker remittances from South Africa supplement domestically earned income. Swaziland’s GDP per capita makes it a lower middle income country, but its income distribution is highly skewed, with an estimated 20% of the population controlling 80% of the nation’s wealth. As of 2014, more than one-quarter of the adult population was infected by HIV/AIDS; Swaziland has the world’s highest HIV prevalence rate. Subsistence agriculture employs approximately 70% of the population. The manufacturing sector diversified in the 1980s and 1990s, but manufacturing has grown little in the last decade. Sugar and wood pulp had been major foreign exchange earners until the wood pulp producer closed in January 2010, and sugar is now the main export earner. Mining has declined in importance in recent years. Coal, gold, diamond, and quarry stone mines are small scale, and the only iron ore mine closed in 2014. With an estimated 40% unemployment rate, Swaziland's need to increase the number and size of small and medium enterprises and to attract foreign direct investment is acute. Overgrazing, soil depletion, drought, and floods are persistent problems. On 1 January 2015, Swaziland lost its eligibility for benefits under the US African Growth and Opportunity Act, resulting in the loss of thousands of jobs. The IMF forecasted that Swaziland’s economy will grow at a slower pace in 2016/2017 because of a region-wide drought, which is likely to hurt Swaziland’s revenue from sugar exports and other agricultural products, and a decline in the tourism and transport sectors. Swaziland’s revenue from SACU receipts and remittances from Swazi citizens abroad will also decline in 2016/2017, making it harder to maintain fiscal balance.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $11.06 billion (2016 est.) $11.01 billion (2015 est.) $10.83 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $3.43 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.5% (2016 est.) 1.7% (2015 est.) 2.5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $9,800 (2016 est.) $9,800 (2015 est.) $9,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 4.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 18.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 12.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 74.7%
government consumption: 21.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -45.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 74.7%
government consumption: 21.4%
investment in fixed capital: 14.6%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -45.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: sugarcane, cotton, corn, tobacco, rice, citrus, pineapples, sorghum, peanuts; cattle, goats, sheep
Industries: coal, forestry, sugar, soft drink concentrates, textiles and apparel
Industrial production growth rate: 2.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 446,100 (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 70%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 40% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: 69% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.1% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 50.4 (2001)
Budget: revenues: $866.9 million
expenditures: $1.195 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.8% (2016 est.) 5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$167 million (2016 est.) $370 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $1.717 billion (2016 est.) $1.763 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: soft drink concentrates, sugar, timber, cotton yarn, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit
Imports: $1.655 billion (2016 est.) $1.603 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: motor vehicles, machinery, transport equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $603.9 million (31 December 2016 est.) $548 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $470.5 million (31 December 2016 est.) $440.1 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA $203.1 million (31 December 2007) $199.9 million (31 December 2006)
Exchange rates: emalangeni per US dollar - 16.15 (2016 est.) 12.7581 (2015 est.) 12.7581 (2014 est.) 10.8469 (2013 est.) 8.2 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013)
Electricity - imports: 900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 200,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 59.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 40.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,029 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 600,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 941,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 66 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: a somewhat modern but not an advanced system

domestic: single source for mobile-cellular service with a geographic coverage of about 90% and a rising subscribership base; combined fixed-line and mobile cellular teledensity roughly 70 telephones per 100 persons in 2015; telephone system consists of carrier-equ

international: country code - 268; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV station; satellite dishes are able to access South African providers; state-owned radio network with 3 channels; 1 private radio station (2007)
Internet country code: .sz
Internet users: total: 436,000 percent of population: 30.4% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 14 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 12

914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 7 (2013)
Railways: total 301 km

narrow gauge: 301 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 3,594 km
paved: 1,078 km
unpaved: 2,516 km (2002)
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 Military
Military branches: Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force (USDF): Ground Force (includes Air Wing (no operational aircraft)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; compulsory HIV testing required, only HIV-negative applicants accepted (2012)
Military expenditures: 3.17% of GDP (2012) 3.11% of GDP (2011) 3.17% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2006, Swazi king advocated resorting to ICJ to claim parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal from South Africa
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