Singapore Population: 5,460,302

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 History
Singapore was founded as a British trading colony in 1819. It joined the Malaysian Federation in 1963 but separated two years later and became independent. Singapore subsequently became one of the world's most prosperous countries with strong international trading links (its port is one of the world's busiest in terms of tonnage handled) and with per capita GDP equal to that of the leading nations of Western Europe.

 Geography
Focal point for Southeast Asian sea routes
Location: Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia
Geographic coordinates: 1 22 N, 103 48 E
Area: total: 697 sq km
land: 687 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than 3.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 193 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: within and beyond territorial sea, as defined in treaties and practice
Climate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon (December to March) and Southwestern monsoon (June to September); inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstorms
Terrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserve
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m
highest point: Bukit Timah 166 m
Natural resources: fish, deepwater ports
Land use: arable land: 0.89%
permanent crops: 0.14%
other: 98.97% (2011)
Irrigated land: NA
Current Environment Issues: industrial pollution; limited natural freshwater resources; limited land availability presents waste disposal problems; seasonal smoke/haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Singaporean(s)
adjective: Singapore
Ethnic groups: Chinese 76.8%, Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4% (2000 census)
Languages: Mandarin (official) 35%, English (official) 23%, Malay (official) 14.1%, Hokkien 11.4%, Cantonese 5.7%, Teochew 4.9%, Tamil (official) 3.2%, other Chinese dialects 1.8%, other 0.9% (2000 census)
Religions: Buddhist 42.5%, Muslim 14.9%, Taoist 8.5%, Hindu 4%, Catholic 4.8%, other Christian 9.8%, other 0.7%, none 14.8% (2000 census)
Population: 5,460,302 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.6% (male 381,145/female 363,504)
15-24 years: 18.2% (male 490,526/female 505,713)
25-54 years: 50.1% (male 1,336,298/female 1,401,106)
55-64 years: 9.9% (male 269,411/female 269,137)
65 years and over: 8.1% (male 200,602/female 242,860) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 35.6 %
youth dependency ratio: 21.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 13.8 %
potential support ratio: 7.2 (2013)
Median age: total: 33.6 years
male: 33.5 years
female: 33.7 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.96% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 7.91 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 3.41 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 15.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 29.4 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 3 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.59 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.73 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 84.07 years
male: 81.67 years
female: 86.64 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 0.79 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 62% note: percent of women aged 15-44 (1997)
Health expenditures: 4% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.83 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 3.14 beds/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,400 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.3% (2000)
Education expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (2012)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.9%
male: 98%
female: 93.8% (2010 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 6.7% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Singapore
conventional short form: Singapore
local long form: Republic of Singapore
local short form: Singapore
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Singapore
geographic coordinates: 1 17 N, 103 51 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none
Independence: 9 August 1965 (from Malaysian Federation)
National holiday: National Day, 9 August (1965)
Constitution: 3 June 1959; amended 1965 (based on pre-independence State of Singapore constitution)
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Tony TAN Keng Yam (since 1 September 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister LEE Hsien Loong (since 12 August 2004); Deputy Prime Minister TEO Chee Hean (since 1 April 2009) and Deputy Prime Minister Tharman SHANMUGARATNAM (since 21 May 2011)

cabinet: appointed by president, responsible to parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for six-year term; election last held on 27 August 2011 (next to be held by August 2017); following legislative elections, leader of majority party or leader of majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by president; deputy prime ministers appointed by president

election results: Tony TAN Keng Yam elected president from a field of four candidates with 35.2% of the votes cast
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (87 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - in addition, there are up to nine nominated members (NMP) and up to nine Non-Constituency Members of Parliament (NCMP); traditionally, members of parties that came closest to winning seats may be appointed as NCMPs; NMPs are appointed by the president to ensure that a wide range of community views are present in Parliament; NMPs are independent and non-partisan members

elections: last held on 7 May 2011 (next to be held in May 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAP 60.1%, WP 12.8%, NSP 12.1%, others 15%; seats by party - PAP 81, WP 6; (seats as of February 2013 PAP 80, WP 7)
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president or chief justice and 16 justices and organized into an upper tier Appeal Court and a lower tier High Court) judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president from candidates recommended by the prime minister after consultation with the chief justice; justices appointed for life

subordinate courts: district, magistrates', juvenile, family, community, and coroners' courts; small claims tribunals
Political parties and leaders: National Solidarity Party or NSP [Hazel POA] People's Action Party or PAP [LEE Hsien Loong] Reform Party [Kenneth JEYARETNAM] Singapore Democratic Alliance or SDA [Desmond LIM] Singapore Democratic Party [CHEE Soon Juan] Singapore People's Party or SPP [CHIAM See Tong] Workers' Party or WP [LOW Thia Khiang] note: SDA includes Singapore Justice Party or SJP and Singapore National Malay Organization or PKMS
Political pressure groups and leaders: none
International organization participation: ADB, AOSIS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, C, CP, EAS, FATF, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNMIT, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion, merlion (mythical half lion-half fish creature)
National anthem: name: "Majulah Singapura" (Onward Singapore)
lyrics/music: ZUBIR Said

note: adopted 1965; the anthem, which was first performed in 1958 at the Victoria Theatre, is sung only in Malay
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ashok Kumar MIRPURI
chancery: 3501 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 537-3100
FAX: [1] (202) 537-0876
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David I. ADELMAN
embassy: 27 Napier Road, Singapore 258508
mailing address: FPO AP 96507-0001
telephone: [65] 6476-9100
FAX: [65] 6476-9340
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 Economy
Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a remarkably open and corruption-free environment, stable prices, and a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in consumer electronics, information technology products, pharmaceuticals, and on a growing financial services sector. Real GDP growth averaged 8.6% between 2004 and 2007. The economy contracted 0.8% in 2009 as a result of the global financial crisis, but rebounded 14.8% in 2010, on the strength of renewed exports, before slowing to 5.2% in 2011 and 1.3% in 2012, largely a result of soft demand for exports during the second European recession. Over the longer term, the government hopes to establish a new growth path that focuses on raising productivity, which has sunk to an average of about 1.0% in the last decade. Singapore has attracted major investments in pharmaceuticals and medical technology production and will continue efforts to establish Singapore as Southeast Asia's financial and high-tech hub.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $331.9 billion (2012 est.) $327.6 billion (2011 est.) $311.5 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $276.5 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (2012 est.) 5.2% (2011 est.) 14.8% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $61,400 (2012 est.) $61,700 (2011 est.) $60,100 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 45.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 46.8% of GDP (2011 est.) 48.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 39.2%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.1%
investment in inventories: 2.9%
exports of goods and services: 200.7%
imports of goods and services: -178.5% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 39.2%
government consumption: 9.7%
investment in fixed capital: 24.1%
investment in inventories: 2.9%
exports of goods and services: 200.7%
imports of goods and services: -178.5% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: orchids, vegetables; poultry, eggs; fish, ornamental fish
Industries: electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and rubber products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Industrial production growth rate: 1.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 3.618 million note: excludes non-residents (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.1%
industry: 19.6%
services: 80.3% note: excludes non-residents (2011)
Unemployment rate: 1.9% (2012 est.) 2% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 23.2% (2008)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 47.8 (2012) 48.1 (2008)
Budget: revenues: $43.44 billion
expenditures: $37.83 billion note: expenditures include both operational and development expenditures (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 15.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 111.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 106% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: for Singapore, public debt consists largely of Singapore Government Securities (SGS) issued to assist the Central Provident Fund (CPF), which administers Singapore's defined contribution pension fund; special issues of SGS are held by the CPF, and are non-tradable; the government has not borrowed to finance deficit expenditures since the 1980s
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 4.6% (2012 est.) 5.2% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $51.44 billion (2012 est.) $65.32 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $435.8 billion (2012 est.) $434.1 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and equipment (including electronics and telecommunications), pharmaceuticals and other chemicals, refined petroleum products
Exports - partners: Malaysia 12.2%, Hong Kong 10.9%, China 10.7%, Indonesia 10.5%, US 5.5%, Japan 4.6%, Australia 4.2%, South Korea 4% (2012)
Imports: $374.9 billion (2012 est.) $361.5 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals, foodstuffs, consumer goods
Imports - partners: Malaysia 10.6%, China 10.3%, US 10.2%, South Korea 6.8%, Japan 6.2%, Indonesia 5.3%, Saudi Arabia 4.5%, UAE 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $259.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $237.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $1.174 trillion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.088 trillion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $454.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $517.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $300.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $331 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $709.4 billion (31 December 2012) $569.4 billion (31 December 2011) $620.5 billion (31 December 2010)
Exchange rates: Singapore dollars (SGD) per US dollar - 1.2497 (2012 est.) 1.258 (2011 est.) 1.3635 (2010 est.) 1.4545 (2009) 1.415 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 45.37 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 53
Electricity - consumption: 41.2 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 10.47 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 99.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 883,500 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.357 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.25 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 1.14 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1.348 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 8.778 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 8.778 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 172.2 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 2.017 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 58
Cellular Phones in use: 7.794 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: excellent service

domestic: excellent domestic facilities; launched 3G wireless service in February 2005; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity more than 180 telephones per 100 persons; multiple providers of high-speed Internet connectivity and the government is close to completing an island-wide roll out of a high-speed fiber-optic broadband network

international: country code - 65; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Asia, Australia, the Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 4; supplemented by VSAT coverage (2011)
Broadcast media: state controls broadcast media; 8 domestic TV stations operated by MediaCorp which is wholly owned by a state investment company; broadcasts from Malaysian and Indonesian stations available; satellite dishes banned; multi-channel cable TV service available; a total of 18 domestic radio stations broadcasting with MediaCorp operating more than a dozen and another 4 stations are closely linked to the ruling party or controlled by the Singapore Armed Forces Reservists Association; many Malaysian and Indonesian radio stations are available
Internet country code: .sg
Internet hosts: 1.96 million (2012)
Internet users: 3.235 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 9 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 158
Airports (paved runways): total 9
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 122 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
Roadways: total 3,356 km
paved: 3,356 km (includes 161 km of expressways) (2009)
Merchant marine: total 1,599

by type: bulk carrier 247, cargo 109, carrier 6, chemical tanker 256, container 339, liquefied gas 131, petroleum tanker 436, refrigerated cargo 13, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 57

foreign-owned: 966 (Australia 12, Bangladesh 1, Belgium 1, Bermuda 25, Brazil 9, Chile 6, China 29, Cyprus 6, Denmark 149, France 3, Germany 32, Greece 22, Hong Kong 46, India 21, Indonesia 60, Italy 5, Japan 164, Malaysia 27, Netherlands 1, Norway 153, Russia 2, South Africa 13, South Korea 3, Sweden 11, Switzerland 3, Taiwan 77, Thailand 33, UAE 10, UK 6, US 36)

registered in other countries: 344 (Australia 2, Bahamas 7, Bangladesh 7, Belize 4, Cambodia 3, Cyprus 1, France 3, Honduras 11, Hong Kong 13, Indonesia 46, Italy 1, Kiribati 9, Liberia 22, Malaysia 13, Maldives 4, Malta 4, Marshall Islands 30, Mongolia 3, North Korea 1, Panama 92, Philippines 1, Saint Kitts and Nevis 10, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 5, Sierra Leone 9, Thailand 1, Tuvalu 19, US 16, Vanuatu 2, unknown 5) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Singapore
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 Military
Military branches: Singapore Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (includes Air Defense) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-21 years of age for male compulsory military service; 16 1/2 years of age for volunteers; 2-year conscript service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 40 (enlisted) or age 50 (officers) (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,255,902 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,018,839
females age 16-49: 1,087,134 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 27,098
female: 25,368 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 3.6% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: disputes persist with Malaysia over deliveries of fresh water to Singapore, Singapore's extensive land reclamation works, bridge construction, and maritime boundaries in the Johor and Singapore Straits; in 2008, ICJ awarded sovereignty of Pedra Branca (Pulau Batu Puteh/Horsburgh Island) to Singapore, and Middle Rocks to Malaysia, but did not rule on maritime regimes, boundaries, or disposition of South Ledge; Indonesia and Singapore continue to work on finalization of their 1973 maritime boundary agreement by defining unresolved areas north of Indonesia's Batam Island; piracy remains a problem in the Malacca Strait
Illicit drugs: drug abuse limited because of aggressive law enforcement efforts; as a transportation and financial services hub, Singapore is vulnerable, despite strict laws and enforcement, as a venue for money laundering
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