Liechtenstein Population: 37,937

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 History
The Principality of Liechtenstein was established within the Holy Roman Empire in 1719. Occupied by both French and Russian troops during the Napoleonic Wars, it became a sovereign state in 1806 and joined the Germanic Confederation in 1815. Liechtenstein became fully independent in 1866 when the Confederation dissolved. Until the end of World War I, it was closely tied to Austria, but the economic devastation caused by that conflict forced Liechtenstein to enter into a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. Since World War II (in which Liechtenstein remained neutral), the country's low taxes have spurred outstanding economic growth. In 2000, shortcomings in banking regulatory oversight resulted in concerns about the use of financial institutions for money laundering. However, Liechtenstein implemented anti-money laundering legislation and a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty with the US that went into effect in 2003.

 Geography
Along with Uzbekistan, one of only two doubly landlocked countries in the world; variety of microclimatic variations based on elevation
Location: Central Europe, between Austria and Switzerland
Geographic coordinates: 47 16 N, 9 32 E
Area: total: 160 sq km
land: 160 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about 0.9 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: total: 75 km border countries (2): Austria 34 km, Switzerland 41 km
Coastline: 0 km (doubly landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: continental; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow or rain; cool to moderately warm, cloudy, humid summers
Terrain: mostly mountainous (Alps) with Rhine Valley in western third
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: hydroelectric potential, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 37.6% arable land 18.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 18.8% forest: 43.1%
other: 19.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Liechtensteiner(s)
adjective: Liechtenstein
Ethnic groups: Liechtensteiner 66.3%, other 33.7% (2013 est.)
Languages: German 94.5% (official) (Alemannic is the main dialect), Italian 1.1%, other 4.3% (2010 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic (official) 75.9%, Protestant Reformed 6.5%, Muslim 5.4%, Lutheran 1.3%, other 2.9%, none 5.4%, unspecified 2.6% (2010 est.)
Population: 37,937 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.38% (male 3,141/female 2,694)
15-24 years: 11.71% (male 2,214/female 2,229)
25-54 years: 42.13% (male 7,983/female 8,001)
55-64 years: 13.82% (male 2,553/female 2,690)
65 years and over: 16.95% (male 2,954/female 3,478) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 42.9 years
male: 41.7 years
female: 44.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.82% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 10.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 14.3% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.48% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: VADUZ (capital) 5,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.26 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 4.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 4.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.9 years male: 79.7 years
female: 84.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.69 children born/woman (2016 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Education expenditures: 2.6% of GDP (2011)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years male: 16 years
female: 13 years (2014)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Principality of Liechtenstein
conventional short form: Liechtenstein
local long form: Fuerstentum Liechtenstein
local short form: Liechtenstein
etymology: named after the Liechtenstein dynasty that purchased and united the counties of Schellenburg and Vaduz and that were allowed by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1719 to rename the new property after their family; the name in German means "light (bright) stone"
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Vaduz
geographic coordinates: 47 08 N, 9 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 11 communes (Gemeinden, singular - Gemeinde); Balzers, Eschen, Gamprin, Mauren, Planken, Ruggell, Schaan, Schellenberg, Triesen, Triesenberg, Vaduz
Independence: 23 January 1719 (Principality of Liechtenstein established); 12 July 1806 (independence from the Holy Roman Empire); 24 August 1866 (independence from the German Confederation)
National holiday: Assumption Day, 15 August, and National Day, 15 August (1940)
Constitution: history: previous 1862; latest adopted 5 October 1921 amendments: proposed as bills by Parliament, by the reigning prince (in the form of “Government” proposals), by petition of at least 1,500 qualified voters, or by at least four communes; passage requires unanimous approval of Parliament members in one sitting or three-quarters majority vote in two successive sittings; referendum required only if petitioned by at least 1,500 voters or by at least four communes; passage by referendum requires absolute majority of all eligible voters; amended many times, last in 2011 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by Swiss, Austrian, and German law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Prince HANS ADAM II (since 13 November 1989, assumed executive powers on 26 August 1984); Heir Apparent Prince ALOIS, son of the monarch (born 11 June 1968); note - on 15 August 2004, HANS ADAM II transferred the official duties of the ruling prince to ALOIS, but HANS ADAM II retains status of chief of state

head of government: Prime Minister Adrian HASLER (since 27 March 2013)

cabinet: Cabinet elected by the Parliament, confirmed by the monarch elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party in the Parliament usually appointed the head of government by the monarch, and the leader of the largest minority party in the Landtag usually appointed the deputy head of government by the monarch if there is a coalition government
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Landtag (25 seats; members directly elected in two multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 3 February 2013 (next to be held in February 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - FBP 40.0%, VU 33.5%, DU 15.3% FL 11.1%; seats by party - FBP 10, VU 8, DU 4, FL 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Oberster Gerichtshof (consists of 5 judges); Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgericht (consists of 5 judges and 5 alternates) judge selection and term of office: judges of both courts elected by the Landtag and appointed by the monarch; Supreme Court judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed for renewable 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal or Obergericht (second instance), Court of Justice (first instance), Administrative Court, county courts
Political parties and leaders: Fatherland Union (Vaterlaendische Union) or VU [Jakob BUECHEL] Progressive Citizens' Party (Fortschrittliche Buergerpartei) or FBP [Thomas BANZER] The Free List (Die Freie Liste) or FL [Pepo FRICK] The Independents (Die Unabhaengigen) or DU [Harry QUADERER]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: CD, CE, EBRD, EFTA, IAEA, ICCt, ICRM, IFRCS, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UPU, WIPO, WTO
National symbol(s): princely hat (crown); national colors: blue, red
National anthem: name: "Oben am jungen Rhein" (High Above the Young Rhine)
lyrics/music: Jakob Joseph JAUCH/Josef FROMMELT

note: adopted 1850, revised 1963; uses the tune of "God Save the Queen"
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kurt JAEGER (since 16 December 2016)
chancery: 2900 K Street, NW, Suite 602B, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0590
FAX: [1] (202) 331-3221
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Liechtenstein; the US Ambassador to Switzerland is accredited to Liechtenstein
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 Economy
Despite its small size and lack of natural resources, Liechtenstein has developed into a prosperous, highly industrialized, free-enterprise economy with a vital financial service sector and the third highest per capita income in the world, after Qatar and Luxembourg. The Liechtenstein economy is widely diversified with a large number of small businesses. Low business taxes - the maximum tax rate is 20% - and easy incorporation rules have induced many holding companies to establish nominal offices in Liechtenstein, providing 30% of state revenues. The country participates in a customs union with Switzerland and uses the Swiss franc as its national currency. It imports more than 90% of its energy requirements. Liechtenstein has been a member of the European Economic Area (an organization serving as a bridge between the European Free Trade Association and the EU) since May 1995. The government is working to harmonize its economic policies with those of an integrated Europe. Since 2008, Liechtenstein has faced renewed international pressure - particularly from Germany and the US - to improve transparency in its banking and tax systems. In December 2008, Liechtenstein signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement with the US. Upon Liechtenstein's conclusion of 12 bilateral information-sharing agreements, the OECD in October 2009 removed the principality from its "grey list" of countries that had yet to implement the organization's Model Tax Convention. By the end of 2010, Liechtenstein had signed 25 Tax Information Exchange Agreements or Double Tax Agreements. In 2011, Liechtenstein joined the Schengen area, which allows passport-free travel across 26 European countries.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $3.2 billion (2009 est.) $3.216 billion (2008 est.) $3.159 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $5.113 billion (2010 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.8% (2012 est.) -0.5% (2009 est.) 3.1% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $89,400 (2009 est.) $90,600 (2008 est.) $89,700 (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, barley, corn, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Industries: electronics, metal manufacturing, dental products, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, food products, precision instruments, tourism, optical instruments
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Labor force: 35,830 (2012) note: 51% of the labor force in Liechtenstein commute daily from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 0.8%
industry: 39.4%
services: 59.9% (2012)
Unemployment rate: 3.4% (2014) 2.3% (2012)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $995.3 million
expenditures: $890.4 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.2% (2013) -0.7% (2012)
Exports: $3.801 billion (2012 est.) $3.757 billion (2011 est.) note: trade data exclude trade with Switzerland
Exports - commodities: small specialty machinery, connectors for audio and video, parts for motor vehicles, dental products, hardware, prepared foodstuffs, electronic equipment, optical products
Imports: $2.09 billion (2012 est.) $2.218 billion (2011 est.) note: trade data exclude trade with Switzerland
Imports - commodities: agricultural products, raw materials, energy products, machinery, metal goods, textiles, foodstuffs, motor vehicles
Debt - external: $0 (2001) note: public external debt only; private external debt unavailable
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Swiss francs (CHF) per US dollar - 0.9992 (2016 est.) 0.9377 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 145.3 million kWh (2012)
Electricity - consumption: 1.36 billion kWh (2012)
Electricity - imports: 1.214 billion kWh (2012)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 41,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 108 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic telephone system

domestic: fixed-line and mobile-cellular services widely available; combined telephone service subscribership exceeds 150 per 100 persons

international: country code - 423; linked to Swiss networks by cable and microwave radio relay (2015)
Broadcast media: relies on foreign terrestrial and satellite broadcasters for most broadcast media services; first Liechtenstein-based TV station established August 2008; Radio Liechtenstein operates multiple radio stations; a Swiss-based broadcaster operates several radi (2008)
Internet country code: .li
Internet users: total: 36,000 percent of population: 96.6% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Pipelines: gas 20 km (2013)
Railways: total 9 km
standard gauge: 9 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified)

note: belongs to the Austrian Railway System connecting Austria and Switzerland (2008)
Roadways: total 380 km
paved: 380 km (2012)
Waterways: 28 km (2010)
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 Military
Liechtenstein has no military forces, but the modern National Police maintain close relations with neighboring forces (2013)
Military branches: no regular military forces; National Police maintain close relations with neighboring forces (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Illicit drugs: has strengthened money laundering controls, but money laundering remains a concern due to Liechtenstein's sophisticated offshore financial services sector
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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